Anonyme Bitcoin Wallets - Die Top 5 Wallets ohne Ausweis ...

dssdd

DancingBear
DaniDaniels
DanielaLopez
DaniellaChavez
Daphne_Joy
Darcie_Dolce
DariSmith
DarkAngels
DarleneSid
DemiLovato
DemiRoseMawby
Denise_Milani
DerrionKeller
devinbrugman
DiamondJackson
DiamondKitty
DiamondKittyFans
dillion_harper
doitforstatesnaps
Dominated
DontCumInMe
downblouse
DressTwerk
DrunkDrunkenPorn
DrunkGirls
DulceMoon
Ebony
ebonyamateurs
EbonyCuties
edging
ElizaIbarra
EllaKnox
ellielou
ElsieHewitt
EmbarrassedNudeGirls
EmilyElizabeth
EmilyRatajkowski
emmaglover
EmmaKotos
EmmanuelleLondon
enf
ENF_EUF
EnhancedFucktoys
EpicCleavage
ErianaBlanco
ericacampbell
ErinAshford
erotic_clips
EroticMassage
EroticVisualArts
Esperanza_Gomez
eThotHub
eva_angelina
Eva_Padlock
EvaElfie
Evalovia
EvaNotty
EvaQuiala
EwaSonnet
exoticdestinyskye
exposedinpublic
ExposedToStrangers
Exxxtras
EyeRollOrgasm
FaceFuck
FacialFun
FaiiOrapun
FaiithMarone
FakePulloutCreampie
fanfucking
fapgrams
FayeReagan
FeaturedBabes
FeelTheFemale
feelthemup
Femaleorgasmdenial
FestivalSluts
Ffionhollyjames
FFNBPS
FilthyAsians
FilthyEbonies
FilthyLatinas
FinallyDoesPorn
finishings
fiona_barron
Firtsbornunicorn
fitgirls
FitGirlsFucking
FitNakedGirls
fitthescreen
FlashingAndFlaunting
FlashingGirls
FlexiGirls
FloatingBikini
Flowing_boobs
FlubTrash
fluid_squishy_boobies
forcedcreampie
forcedorgasms
FranceskaJaimes
Francety
FranciaJames
FreeBoob
freeuse
frenchmaid
Frenulum_Cumming
FrogButt
FrontSideboob
fuckdoll
fuckyeahcollegesluts
fuckyeahdrunksluts
funsized
FunWithFriends
GabbieCarter
GabbyGavino
GabriellaPaltrova
GalGadot
genesislopezmodel
genny_shawcross
GeorgiaCarter
GeorginaRodriguez
gettingherselfoff
GiaDerza
GiaMilana
giannadior
GiannaMichaels
GiaPaige
GifsOfRemoval
GillianBarnes
Ginebra_Bellucci
girlsbeingstripped
girlsdoingstuffnaked
GirlsFinishingTheJob
GirlsGoneBitcoin
GirlsInFlarePants
girlsinleggings
girlsinplaidskirts
girlsinsweatpants
girlsinyogapants
girlslickingcum
girlswhoride
GirlswithBodypaint
GirlswithGlasses
gisellelynette
Gloryholes
gobustygirls
goddesses
GolemSexy
gonewild
gonewildcolor
GrabHerTitties
GracefulSubmission
GracelessSubmission
GraphicLeggings
GropingGifs
GsSpot
HaleyRyder
Hanamiblossom_
Handjob
HannaHilton
HannahStocking
hapas
HappyEmbarrassedGirls
HappyEnding
HappyEndingMassage
happygirls
HarleyDean
HayleyToTheMax
heavenroque
Hegre
HeidiGrey
helayna
helgalovekaty
HiddenAndWatching
highheelsNSFW
HighResModels
highwaistedthongs
HijabiXXX
hipcleavage
HipHopGoneWild
Hitomi_Tanaka
HoldingIt
holdthemoan
Holly_Peers
HoneyGold
HopeBeel
hopelesssofrantic
hot_reporters
Hot_Women_Gifs
hotclub
Hotdogging
hotgirlsinyogapants
HotSnapchatStars
hotsororitygirls
HotStuffNSFW
HottestNCAAAthletes
Hotwife
HQDesi
hugeboobs
HugeBoobsandTits
Hugeboobshardcore
hugenaturals
HungryButts
hydroerotic
HypnoticBodyGifs
IfYouCanLast
ImpresssedByCum
InannaSarkis
India_Summer
IndiaLoveWestbrooks
InnaVladimirskaya
InstaFap
Instagram_nsfw
InstagramHotties
Instagrammodels
instagramnudeleaks
InstagramSluts
InstagramStoriesNSFW
InstaHoes
instahotties
instanips
InstaSnapsAndMore
InstaThots2
instawank
InternetStars
iPoonamPandey
IRLgirls
Iryna
IrynaIvanovaFans
IsabellaBuscemi
isabelladesantos
iskralawrence
ItsAmateurHour
itsannemoore
iWantToFuckHer
JadaStevens
JadeKush
JadeRamey
JailyneOjedaOchoa
JamieThornton
JanetGuzman
janicegriffith
JannaBreslin
JapanesePorn2
JasmineCaro
JasmineVega
javdreams
JaydenJaymes
Jem_Wolfie
JemWolfie
JemWolfie_
JenaFrumes
JenaveveJolie
JennaJFoxx
JenniferAnn
JennyHanna
JenSelter
JerkOffToCelebs
JessaRhodes
Jessica_Lynn
JessicaFuleky
JessicaNigri
JessicaRobbin
JessicaSunok
jezabelvessir
Jia_Lissa
jiggle
JiggleFuck
jigglejiggle
Jigglyboobs
jigglybutts
Jilissa_Ann
jilissaann
jilling
JizzedToThis
joeyfisher
joi
JordynJohnson
JoselynCano
JoyTaylor_Pics
JuditGuerra
Jugs
juicyasians
JuicyBrazilians
juliakelly
JuliakulPics
juliannavega
JuliaRose
JustBecause9999998
JustFriendsHavingFun
JustHotWomen
JustOneBoob
JustSeenABigOlAss
JustTheTop
JynxMaze
k_duub
Kaiyadi_Men
KaraDelToro
KarinaElle
karleegrey
KatanaKombat
KateeOwen
KateMahoney
katerina
kateupton
katiebell
Katrina_Jade
Katt_Leya
KattLeyaAndStrellaKat
KatyaClover
KatyaEliseHenry
KaylaJones
KaylaKayden
KaylaniLei
Kayliannphillips
KaylinaEileen
KaylinaEileen_
KeeleyHazell
KeilahK
KeilahKang
KeishaGrey
KelsiMonroe
Kendra_Sunderland
KendraKouture
KendraLust
KendraLustX
KendraRoll
khalifa
KiannaDior
KiaraMia
KikiPasso
KimmyGranger
KinseyW
KinseyWolanski
Kinsley_Karter
KissNastya
KorinaKova
KosetaMayu
Krissy_Taylor
KristyBlack
KsyushaEgorova
KureaHasumi
KurwaSuka
KyliePage
LaciKaySomers
LadiesOfWrestling
lanarhoades
LapDanceSexStance
LatinaCuties
latinaporn
latinas
LatinasGW
laurenpisciotta
LaurenSearle
LaurenSummer
LaylaLondon
leahgotti
LeannaBartlett
leannadecker
LegalTeens
leggingsgonewild
legs
legsup
Lela_Star
lele_pons
Lena_The_Plug
LenaPaul
LenaThePlugFans
leotards
lesbians
LettingThemWatch
LexiBelle
LexiLunaxoxo
LexiWilde
Lexxie_Marie
LiaMarieJohnson
lifeisabeach
lilylove
lilythai
lindseypelas
lingerie
LipsThatGrip
LisaAnn
LittleCaprice
LiyaSilver
LizKatz
lolavalentine
LoveToWatchYou
LowkeyThickness
lucia_javorcekova
LuckyCameraman
LucyLi
lucypinder
LucysLounge
lululemonleggings
LunaStar
LupeFuentes
LuxuryGirl
lynaritaa
mackenziezamb
maddybelle
MadelineSmith
madison_ivy
MalluBabes
MandyMuse
MargotRobbie
MariaSolPerez
MariaVillalba
MarilynMelo
MarissaDaNae
MaryLynnNeil
MaryShum
maseratixxx
Masonmoore
MassageGirls
MassagePorn
MassageSex
MassiveTitsnAss
MaxxxHub
meetpornstar
MeganRain
MeganSalinas
Megasforsale
Meguri
MelanieIglesias
Melissamoore
MelissaSandoval
MenzWeakneZ
Miakhalifa
MiaMalkova
MiaMelano
MicroBikini
MiddleEasternHotties
mila_azul
MilaAzul
MilaSantos
milf
milkingtable
MiniJello
MissFlowerBomb
MissLexa
MixedRaceGirls
mollymae
MonicaCorgan
MonifaJansen
MonsterFacials
MorganLee
MoriahMills
MotionBooty
motiontrackedboobs
MotionTrackedPorn
MsColleen
MsRyleeRaye
MultiCumming
multihub
MVgirls
MyHappyEndings
Nadia_Ali
nakedgirlsdancing
nakednews
NakedOnStage
nakedtwerk
NakedTwerking
nalgonas
NaomiWoods
NastyaNASS
Nataagataa
NataLee
Natalia_Garibotto
NataliaSophia
nataliehadek
NatalieNewman
NataliNemtchinova
naturaltitties
nekane
newsbabes
Nia_Nacci
NiceAssPornCollection
Nicki_Minaj
nicoleaniston
NicoleBexley
NicoleKopchak
NicoletteShea
nicoletteshea_club
Niemira
Nievamara
NightOutGirls
nikki_sims
NileyHott
Nipples
nipslipandcleavage
nipslips
NiykeeHeaton
NoeliaRamirez
noelleeaston
NoelLeon
nothingbutheels
NotSafeForWater
nsfw
nsfw2
NSFW411
Nsfw_Amateurs
NSFW_cam_girls
NSFW_GIF
nsfw_gifs
NSFW_HTML5
NSFW_Japan
NSFW_Korea
NSFW_MIX
NSFW_RideSharing
NSFW_Snapchat
NSFW_Social
nsfw_videos
NSFWBarista
NSFWBOX
nsfwcelebs
NSFWclubs
nsfwcosplay
NSFWfashion
NSFWGirl
nsfwhardcore
NSFWIGLive
NSFWinMemoriam
NSFWOddlySatisfying
nsfwoutfits
NSFWPublic
NSFWReactions
NSFWSI
NudeCelebsOnly
NudeNudeNude
nuru
NuruMassageXXX
O_Faces
ohgeelizzyp2
Ohlympics
OiledAss
Oilporn
Omeglesex
omgbeckylookathiscock
OneBoobFlash
OnePieceSuits
onlyonenaked
OnOff
OnOffCelebs
onoffcollages
OnOn
OnStageGW
Open_Boobs
OPSBL
orgasmcontrol
Orgasms
outercourse
paag
pabg
Page3Glamour
pahg
palg
ParisJacobson
partyfucking
patreonleaked
patreonnudes
pawg
Penetration_gifs
PerfectCurves
PerfectNSFW
perfectsag
PerfectTits
Perlalov
PetaJensen
PetiteGoneWild
pizzadare
pokies
PolinaSitnova
PoonamPandeyFans
PopCultureGifs
porn
porn_gifs
pornbloopers
pornception
PornCum
PornGifs
Pornheat
pornID
porninaminute
porninfifteenseconds
PornoBooty
PornoCreampie
PornoDirtyTalk
PornoMouth
PornstarFashion
PornstarGIF
PornStarHQ
PornStarletHQ
PornStarPlanet
PornStars
PornstarsHD
pornstarsmedia
pornstarsprivate
pornvids
pornwithsounds
PornZuera
postorgasm
Pounded
POV
POVPornVids
PrematureCum
prematurecumshots
PremiumSnapchat
PriscillaRicart
Priya_Price
priyarai
PublicFlashing
submitted by burnerforthots to u/burnerforthots [link] [comments]

Cutting to the chase or how to properly evaluate privacy coins!

EDIT Be aware, the moderators of cryptocurrency have SHADOW DELETED without cause the original thread. This is most likely at the request of the XMR community. Also, the Monero community continues to Vote-Brigade this thread. Originally 11-14 upvotes, and even today 5 upvotes, they make sure it stays around 1. This is manipulation.
https://np.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/9gl5xp/cutting_to_the_chase_or_how_to_properly_evaluate/
This causes the post to appear to me, but to everyone else its been deleted. Now, why would they undertake such an underhanded tactic?
End EDIT
There's a lot of talk about anonymity and privacy as it relates to blockchains. Recently a report surfaced mentioning that cryptos are basically bad news for criminals: https://dailyhodl.com/2018/09/16/bitcoin-is-actually-a-money-laundering-tracking-device-that-catches-criminals-report/
TL;DR is at the bottom
Why? Because they're easy to track. Once they've got a single piece of identifying info that's linked to an address (say that coinbase transfer to an exchange) then all transactions are linkable to that id. But, privacy coins are different because they obscure this history (or in some cases 'delete' it all together). However, it can be a little difficult to decide which privacy coin offers the best privacy, along with the best combination of fees, security and usability.
So with no further ado, here is your simple guide to evaluating privacy coins! Like daily tx throughput is a key metric of btc/blockchain adoption and usage, privacy coins have their own 'key metric' to determine their ability to hide your tx history: the size of their anonymity set. This is basically the number of other people with which your transaction is plausibly 'mixed' so at to sever the link between your address and that coin. The greater this number is, the more difficult it is to associate a coin with your address, thus making it more private.
To make this easier to understand, it helps to know the following: All privacy coins do the same thing, just in vastly different ways. What is that thing? Obscuring/removing your linkage to a coin by mixing it with a similar coin denomination from another wallet. Monero is a slight exception to this, since transaction amounts are hidden in the blockchain as well, so there's no need for denominations. Also, your coin is mixed with fake coins that aren't real, instead of coins from other wallets, but no one can tell that from the blockchain so it works.

Dash

It should be noted that in Dash, the anonymity set is the total set of each denomination. So if you send a .1 Dash privateSend transaction, the anonymity set is the set of all .1 Dash. The following only applies if you've bought up more than 70% of the masternodes, and only to transactions that are currently being mixed. Previously mixed transactions cannot be deanoned.
In Dash, it depends on how many rounds you mix. Each coin is once again broken down into standard denominations like 10, 1, .1 .01 and most recently, .001 Dash. Each round involves a minimum of three different wallets. So take the number of participants and raise it to the rounds you mix-th power, and that is your minimum anonymity set.
So mixing four rounds gives you a minimum anonymity set of (3 participants)4 rounds = 81. Eight rounds gives you a min set of 38 = 6,561. 16 rounds give you a min set of 316 = 43,046,721 which is currently the second largest anonymity set of all the privacy coins.
Could be more if more than three wallets were involved in any single mix, which is possible. However, it could be less if the same participants are used per round, which is unlikely. This is still a HUGE anonymity set; however, its probably at least an order of magnitude less than PIVX and ZCoin unless you were to get 4-5 wallets mixing per round. Dash's anon-set is the second largest in the private coin space and is around 3x larger than PIVX's.
Still, even 81 could be rightly considered overkill, especially since Considering the nature of privateSend and the random separation between 'minting' and spending, Dash is immune to timing analysis attacks. The determination of which coin to use will come down to your anonymity needs. How private do you need to be?

PIVX

In PIVX, for example, ~10-20% of all pivx held in wallets is 'gathered' by the accumulator (note it never leaves your control) in a central pool of zpiv using standard denominations like 10 zpiv, 1zpiv, .1zpiv etc. This is a configurable setting in the wallet so some may wish to turn it on/off at their discretion, but recent research has shown that 24% of all PIVX held in wallets is private/zpiv, see u/turtleflax's comment below.
After all of that, by using a zero-knowledge proof which cryptographically proves you owned whatever zpiv was minted from your wallet without any linking information to you, zpiv is 'sent' to your wallet and shows up with no transaction history. So the anonymity set is 10%, 24% nowadays, of all PIVX held in wallets, which is obviously huge. In Apr 2019 a vulnerability was discovered in the ZeroCoin protocol that PIVX and ZCoin both share.
Now that the issue has been confirmed, we will no longer wait for the soft-fork to complete and will release a new wallet that will allow conversion of all zPIV held in the wallet to PIV. This will mean that all users will be able to fully access their funds immediately once released. This new release will be mandatory, and the zPIV spends will no longer be private in light of this new vulnerability.
Which means that for now, PIVX's privacy has been shut off and zpiv spends are no longer private, putting PIVX at 0 currently.

ZCoin

In Apr 2019 a cryptographic vulnerability was discovered with the ZeroCoin protocol. This was not a coding error but a flaw in the mathematical proof that ZeroCoin's design was based on. This has lead to ZCoin disabling their privacy feature.
>We found the root cause of the irregular Zerocoin spends on the 19 April 2019. An emergency update 13.7.9 is now available to disable Zerocoin completely while we move to our Sigma implementation. We are in touch with a number of other Zerocoin projects and are working together to secure it.
>We recommend any projects utilizing Zerocoin (regardless of which implementation you are using) to disable Zerocoin on sporks or at a consensus layer.
ZCoin has recently on July 23 2019 released their newly updated Sigma privacy protocol which replaces the ZeroCoin protocol. Zerocoin had an issue before that caused them to shut it down, and now they have released the Sigma protocol.
It is another encryption based scheme, but this time without the trusted setup and relying on well-known cryptographic primitives, i.e. the algorithms they use to build the encryption are well-known and time-tested. They've been investigated for bugs and are all deployed actively in other systems, thus, a similiar bug becomes less likely. ZeroCoin was groundbreaking, but also very experimental.
With this, the Anonymity set size of ZCoin becomes 214 = 16,384.
Here is how they describe its functioning:
Sigma is based on the academic paper One-Out-Of-Many-Proofs: Or How to Leak a Secret and Spend a Coin (Jens Groth and Markulf Kohlweiss) which replaces RSA accumulators by utilizing Pedersen commitments and other techniques which cryptographic construction does not require trusted setup.
The only system parameters required in the Sigma setup are ECC group specifications and the group generators. This construction was further optimized in the paper Short Accountable Ring Signatures based on DDH (Jonathan Bootle, Andrew Cerulli, Pyrros Chaidos, Essam Ghadafi, Jens Groth and Christophe Petit).
Proof sizes are significantly reduced from 25 kB in Zerocoin to 1.5 kB in Sigma which is almost a 17x reduction making it a lot cheaper to store on the blockchain and making it possible to fit much more private send transactions in a block. We also utilize the improved Sigma techniques in the paper Short Accountable Ring Signatures Based on DDH to reduce proof sizes further. This solves one of the biggest problems of Zerocoin without reducing its security.
Security via the usage of 256 bit ECC curves in Sigma is improved compared to 2048 bit RSA used in Zerocoin and is estimated to be equivalent to 3072 bit RSA.
Our implementation also uses Pippenger and Straus’ multi exponentiation algorithms for further verification efficiency.
There's a lot of tech speak in there. Suffice it to say that Sigma utilizes well-known cryptographic algorithms without a trusted setup to provide a pretty strong privacy offering, with a anonymity set size more than 10,000.

ZCash

ZCash is an implementation of the ZeroCash protocol which is an improvement on the ZeroCoin protocol. The cool thing about ZCash is that it also hides the amount of the transaction. ZCash's privacy is optional and the blockchain is split between t-addresses and z-addresses. t-addrs are transparent and contain visible balances just like Bitcoin, which ZCash is a software fork of. z-addrs are shielded. ZCash appears to have two kinds of shielded transactions (shielded and fully shielded).
I'm not sure of the difference between them, but according to this handy block explorer: https://explorer.zcha.in/statistics/usage, shielded txs are far more prevalent than fully shielded ones. The difference between them may be that fully shielded txs are transactions between two z-addrs while a tx that is 'just shielded' may be one between a z-addr and a t-addr and possibly a t-addr and a z-addr, but again, I'm not sure.
The developers claim that the anonymity set is very large in comparison to coins like Dash, and since it is based on the ZeroCash, it is reasonable to assume its anon set is similarly large and based on a proportion of the supply, though where among the three it stands is of course up for debate/verification. However, with Dash's recent protocol update to v0.13, privateSend now has the second largest possible anonymity set among the privacy coins. At 43 million, it is less than ZEC's (4.3 Billion) but greater than ZCoin's (~16,000) and PIVX's (currently 0), Monero's (only 11) and Bitcoin Cash's (5).
Zec's anon-set is perhaps as large as the shielded value colume for any time period, also note that is a lower bound, so for the past month: 394989 ZEC would be the total shielded ZEC, so this seems a reasonable lower-bound on the Anon-set. Its hard to Tell between this and PIVX which is larger.
According to this page the anonymity set size for ZEC is 232 = 4,294,967,296 granting it the largest anonymity set size in the space, several orders of magnitude larger than runner-up Dash at ~43,000,000 @ 16 rounds of mixing.

Monero

In Monero, the anonymity set is the number of mixins used at the time of your transaction. Which is currently 11 with the most recent update to bulletproofs. Monero originally had optional privacy where the min mixin was 0 and those transactions were transparent like btc's.
However, having these 0 mixin transactions together with the higher mixin transactions allowed for higher ones to be deanoned, that and 3 forms of timing analysis attacks forced the min mixin to be raised to 3, then 5 then 7 and finally its current static value. With the latest update the ring size, previously a wallet-configurable parameter, is now fixed at 11 for everyone.

Bitcoin Cash

With Bitcoin cash adding its CashShuffle protocol, they too join the ranks of the privacy coins. Each mixing is done with 4 other participants giving an anonymity set of 5.

TL;DR

So in short, if you want to rank privacy coins by their anon-set size (which is the only thing that matters) the list is as follows:

1. ZCash 4,294,967,296

2. Dash 43,046,721

3. ZCoin 16,384

4. Monero 11

5. Bitcoin Cash 5

Note: Each tier except the last generally represents a range of at least >1 order of magnitude greater anonymity set. So ZCash is two orders of magnitude greater than Dash, which is 3 orders of magnitude greater than ZCoin which is 3 orders of magnitude greater than Monero which is in the same order of magnitude as BCH. Monero's default min mixin is 7 and the max definable in the gui wallet IIRC is 26 ring size is fixed at 11 for everyone. It is no longer possible to select your own ring size per tx.
Due to the optional nature of how many rounds a user can select in Dash (default 4-16), there is a wide range of possible anon set sizes for Dash, most other coins have a predetermined anon set like Monero which is fixed at 11 currently, and Bitcoin Cash which uses a single round of mixing with 5 total participants.
But for Dash, which may on occasion cross into fall into the grey zone between numbers 4 and 2 due to uncertainty around the number of wallets participating, and the fact that an attacker will never know how many rounds a tx is going through, as well as the users ability to choose different rounds. The more rounds selected the higher the anonymity set.
Also, because Dash doesn't rely on encryption for its privacy, if you don't catch/trace the transaction when its happening, i.e. by buying up 70% or more of the masternodes in order to attempt to link outputs between participants, you can never deanon it. If you use encryption, especially for the entire blockchain, you paint a large target on your blockchain. If your encryption is ever broken, then all past transactions will be deanoned at once, so not good. This is a benefit of steganography over some encryption based privacy schemes. Edit:
Don't worry, my comments and posts are always heavily downvoted, that's how you know they're good stuff!
submitted by thethrowaccount21 to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

Adrafinil vs Modafinil - The Definitive Reddit Guide

What is Modafinil?


Modafinil is a eugeroic – or, simply, a wakefulness-promoting agent – with a primary purpose of combating narcolepsy amongst suffers. Eugeroics differ from other stimulants because they are considered relatively non-addictive. This means that they do not cause the typical side effects experienced with most stimulants, like agitation and nervousness.
Let us first discuss the chemical components of Modafinil. It is a racemic mixture, and such mixtures have equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers. Enantiomers are the two forms in which large numbers of chemicals exist. Both forms are chemically and structurally identical, yet are nevertheless mirror images of the other. In other words, enantiomers are the ‘left’ and ‘right’ versions of a drug. These are called S and R enantiomers. One enantiomer is typically responsible for the majority of a drug’s effects, while the other can contribute to those positive effects. In other cases, the less dominant enantiomer can cause adverse side effects, or it be inert.
Interestingly Modafinil Most racemic mixtures are balanced equally. This means half of the mixture is ‘left’ enantiomer and the other half is ‘right’. Modafinil is an equal combination of its S- and R- enantiomers, meaning that both have a psychoactive function. Just as you sometimes need two hands to do a job correctly, Modafinil uses both of its enantiomers to provide the ideal effect on body and mind.
Preliminary scientific evidence has found that Modafinil works through histamine signaling. This phrase might indeed baffle you if you aren’t familiar with biological terminology. What this essentially means is that the histamine receptors, found for example in the central nervous system, are provoked. Michael J Minzenberg and Cameron S Carter’s journal provides ample scientific research on Modafinil’s neurochemical actions and effects.
Histamine acts a neurotransmitter, a chemical substance which is released at the end of a nerve fibre by the arrival of a nerve impulse. Neurotransmitters affect the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fibre, muscle fibre, or some other structure within the body. Modafinil enhances histamine activity by stimulating the central system. This increased activity therefore impacts other nerve fibres/muscle fibres in the body, accounting for its ability to stimulate a fatigued body.
As well as fighting tiredness, Modafinil also improves general mood and well-being amongst users, with positive improvements seen with mental focus, analytic capability and memory recall and retention.
Britain deems Modafinil a prescription-only drug. In America, meanwhile, Modafinil’s brand name is Provigil. It is considered a scheduled drug, meaning that it necessitates a prescription in order to obtain it legally.

What is Adrafinil?


Adrafinil is a pro-drug to Modafinil. This simply means that supplementation of it increases concentrations of Modafinil in the body. The liver changes Adrafinil to Modafinil.
Similarly to Modafinil, Adrafinil’s cognitive benefits are enhanced by noted improvements in day-time alertness, motivation, mood and energy levels. It also does not generate the irritability, anxiousness and nervousness routinely experienced through the use of other stimulants.
Britain does not measure Adrafinil under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, a legislation that governs the regulation of drugs. This means that it is not regulated. Adrafinil’s legal status and nootropics in general, nevertheless remains in grey area. It is lawful for purchase by British residents, but only for personal use. In the U.S, however, the drug is currently legal and can be bought, prescription free, as an alternative to Modafinil. Though its manufactured moniker Olmifon was discontinued in 2011, Adrafinil itself can still be purchased easily online.

Why do they differ?

Modafinil and Adrafinil are two of the most popular stimulants available. Though both offer similar if not identical cognitive benefits, there are key distinctions between both.
Chemically speaking, the structures of both drugs are very similar:

Adrafinil Structure
It is, however, with the body’s processing of each drug that differences become most apparent. Modafinil is processed through metabolic activity occurring mainly in the liver. Lesser contributions to the metabolising process are made through the activity of the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP). Cytochrome p-450 (often abbreviated “CYP”) is a class of enzymes that is involved in the metabolism of many medications and is located primarily in the liver.
But, what exactly are enzymes? They exist in living organisms and catalyze specific biochemical reactions within the body. At the beginning of a reaction process, molecules exist called ‘substrates’. The enzyme converts these into ‘products’. All metabolic processes in cells require enzymes to react within the body at rates fast enough to sustain life.
Adrafinil differs because it is changed into Modafinil in the liver. This means that it relies on greater enzyme activity to process correctly and efficiently.
The conversion process of Adrafinil and Modafinil sees the former breaking down into the latter as a compound. This is how it is metabolized. Enzymes are relied upon more during the metabolic process of Adrafinil. As mentioned briefly in the metabolism of Modafinil, the enzyme involved in metabolizing Adrafinil when it reaches the liver is Cytochrome p-450.
How quickly the liver is able to convert Adrafinil is dependent upon metabolic rate and the efficiency of the liver overall. Two people of the same sex, similar age and weight can take the same dose of Adrafinil but achieve very different results.
In necessitating a more rigorous metabolism process, the most profound difference between Modafinil and Adrafinil is that the latter requires the greater use of Cytochrome p-450. Over time, if the drug is not taken cyclically, such enzymes can build up in the liver with potentially damaging effects on the organ as a whole.

Adrafinil vs Modafinil Dosage


For Adrafinil, it as advised to dose between 600 to 1200mg per day. It is further advised, as with the majority of supplements, to begin on a low dose, only increasing the amount after recognizing your own body’s reaction and tolerance. Adrafinil should not be taken in the afternoon and evening to prevent a sleepless night. Ideally, it should be taken 3 times a week and for no longer than five months. This is primarily to prevent side effects, tolerance and the build-up of enzymes in the liver.
Examine.com state that Adrafinil’s recommended dosage range is vast, ranging from 600 to 1,200mg. BodhiSvaha on erowid.org explained their willingness to take both small doses and larger ones of Adrafinil:
After extensive experimentation with dosage, I have settled on taking 300mg when I wake up and another 300 mg in the early afternoon. There does not seem to be much, if any, habituation or tolerance created by Adrafinil. Occasionally I will take doses up to 1200 mg when a high degree of concentration is required. I have found this dose to be very effective at potentiating and improving the tryptamine experience, in particular. I find tryps sometimes bring a feeling of lethargy or body load with some cognitive dullness. Adrafinil counters this effect very nicely.
Here it is evident that, despite there being a large range of recommended doses for Adrafinil, all of them are safe. Whatever you choose within that range is dependent on your desired alertness and bodily tolerance. Reddit user ssitimefill explains the necessity of slowly upping Adrafinil dosage, as well as suggesting why a higher dose than Modafinil is required:
To my knowledge it is not established how what proportion of adrafinil is broken down into modafinil and what proportion into modafinilic acid. This proportion likely varies person to person, and also by dose. Some studies have reported adrafinil more potent at lower doses. The general psychological effect of adrafinil depends not only on the quantity converted into modafinil but the rate of this conversion. 300 mg of modafinil from adrafinil is not likely to produce an identical effect from 300 mg of modafinil. Basically there is no way to determine optimum dose of adrafinil other than trial and error. The best procedure is to start with low doses (measured via scale) and slowly increase dose until you reach the optimal, then sub-optimal dose. When you have reached sub-optimal dose (too much adrafinil) you can deduce what dose is optimal for you.
Because Modafinil does not transform in the liver, it generally requires lesser dosage to reach its optimum effect. Modafinil is typically sold in 100 mg or 200 mg tablets. The latter option is more popular due to its greater availability. 200 mg is indeed the recommended dose, to be taken once per day, usually during the morning. It may be taken with or without food. (nootriment.com)
Some recommend starting with an initial intake of 100 mg Modafinil dosage. This helps with accustoming the body to the drug itself. An anonymous writer on erowid.org posted his first use of 100mg Modafinil, describing its positive effects:
And today I tried modafinil 100 mg for the first time. I took it at around 10:45 AM today and it is now 4:35 PM. My experience has been much like those of others herein described– initial buzziness (~1 hr after I took the pill) that lasted about as long. But for the past 4 hours, I have been just plain awake. I have not succumbed to the usual desire to take a nap in the afternoons despite the near-90-degree heat, which usually puts me right to sleep. I have had no such desire in fact. I am not jittery or having unusual thoughts, etc.
It is also possible to take higher doses. Up to 400 mg per day has been shown to be very well-tolerated. Pino on drugs-forum tried a variety of dosages and provides some succinct information of the results:
Combinations:
200 mg modafinil + caffeine: Pleasant vibe, easy and fast thinking. Able to solve sudokus a lot quicker. The bus driver becomes more self reassured in conversations and is able to focus more than 16 hours. Sleep quality is ok. (bp: 130/80) 200 mg modafinil + too much caffeine (4 cups of coffee): Anxiousness and some hypertension kicks in here. (bp: 140/93) Concentration is less than optimal in this region. 400 mg modafinil + normal caffeine: Nice euphoria, but can also turn into anxiousness.
It is clear that the recommended doses are speculative and dependent on personal accounts of drug use. There are certainly more user reviews around the internet that explain individual experiences of alternating dosage amounts. There is, of course, still the question of the differences in dosage between Modafinil and Adrafinil. Jjhurley on Reddit discussed the differences in dosage between both:
… most people tell me 300mg of adra is comparable to just 100mg of moda. Whether your ratio or this other ratio is correct doesn’t make too much a difference, but I have been taking 600mg of adra and don’t want to lose any potency. Is this to say I should go with 300-400mg of moda? If so, that’s a little upsetting because I was really hoping to have equal, if not better, experiences on just 200mg of moda.
ProfWiki agreed that Adrafinil should be taken in higher dosages than Modafinil:
I take 600 mg in order to get effects. This is equivalent to about 200 mg of modafinil. I think throwf0 read you as saying modafinil since he mentioned modafinil. Modafinil is a lot stronger than adrafinil. 150 mg of adrafinil would be about like 50 mg of adrafinil. Anyway, like I said, 50 mg of Adrafinil is far too lose to be effective. 50 mg of MODAfinil might work okay for some but they typically are just breaking up a standard 100/200 mg dose. Being that Adrafinil works by metabolizing into Modafinil, and that as a rule of thumb 1/3 of Adrafinil turns into modafinil, a 50 mg dose of Adrafinil would be just roughly 16-17 mg of modafinil. There wouldn’t be any effects from such a low level dose.

Adrafinil vs Provigil


Let us first make one distinction:
Adrafinil = generic drug Provigil = brand name of Modafinil
It is often questioned what the difference between Provigil and Adrafinil is. However, the former is simply a branded name for the generic drug Modafinil, which, as we have now found, is the metabolite of Adrafinil. So long as users are acquiring pure generic versions of Adrafinil, then the same effects as Provigil will be felt and the advised dosage will essentially be identical.
It is therefore not unusual for potential users to question the differences between Provigil and Adrafinil. Moreover, it is certainly not unreasonable to question their differences. For instance, internet user Shatneresque questioned the difference between Modafinil and Provigil, which are the same drug, asking:
My pharmacy sent me a email saying I can now replace my Provigil ($125 a month) with the generic version and they need my okay to do so. Before I say yes and say the money, I want to know if anyone has noticed any differences. I am very happy with the provigil and have been taking it for several years.
This query was answered by Serpens:
It appears that Cephalon, the maker of Provigil, has been purchased by Teva, titan generic manufacturer. There are currently three manufacturers selling a generic labeled ‘modafinil’ : Cephalon (brand holder), Teva, and Par. All three are using the same brand name NDA license on file with the FDA. In addition, Elsevier’s Clinical Pharmacology has images and references available for the generic product being shipped for all three drug companies. They’re all the same pill. Images of all three products show a white oblong tablet with “Provigil” on one side, and the strength on the other. All products have the same inactive ingredients.
Queries like this prove that caution is imperative when deciding on which supplement to use. This is especially true if you are a first time user or are, like Shatneresque, accustomed to using one particular brand such as Provigil. Researching alternatives and finding the most information about whatever drug you are choosing is vital if you are to select the right one for you. Awareness is the key and there is no harm in asking questions that, to you, may sound obvious once they are answered.

About Provigil


Provigil was originally manufactured by Cephalon, the same company behind the previously branded version of Adrafinil (Olmifon). Business editor Dell Poncet writes of how, in 1999, interest for both Cephalon and Provigil was taking off, with registered quarterly sales of $10.7 million. Being among the leading biopharmaceutical companies in the world, Cephalon flourished. In 2011, it was acquired by Teva, the largest generic drug manufacturer in the world for a huge $6.8 billion (read more here). There is little surprise, then, that Provigil is sold at quite a cost.
A 30-day supply of Provigil 200mg pills can cost as much as $1500. Buyers in the UK can therefore expect to pay even more if the pharmacy offers world-wide shipping.
Since branded Modafinil is so expensive, Adrafinil is clearly the best alternative. The latter drug does not come attached to a manufactured title, and is inexpensive yet easily attainable. What is more, it can be bought prescription-free online or by phone. There are plenty of legitimate outlets stocking Adrafinil and these can be accessed at the click of a button. If economizing is one aspect of importance, then Adrafinil is certainly the best choice.

Modafinil in India


More importantly health-wise, though, is the scary possibility of purchasing a dodgy-version of branded Modafinil online. With the cost of Provigil being so high, it is unsurprising that many prospective users look for a cheaper alternative for their first time trying the drug. Many turn to the internet’s grey market, where there is a lingering risk of being ripped off with tampered drugs. This is where extra caution and care should be applied.
Once users began contemplating off-label equivalents, international pharmacy websites quickly took the opportunity to sell these kinds of drugs. The most popular location from which many internet users buy unbranded Modafinil is India. Sources of the drug in India do not require strict quality control, nor are prescriptions required by users.
In fact, there is much information to be considered with regard to India’s counterfeit drugs market. This article on New York Times discusses how:
India’s drug industry is one of the country’s most important economic engines, exporting $15 billion in products annually, and some of its factories are world-class, virtually undistinguishable from their counterparts in the West. But others suffer from serious quality control problems. The World Health Organization estimated that one in five drugs made in India are fakes. A 2010 survey of New Delhi pharmacies found that 12 percent of sampled drugs were spurious.
Meanwhile, this article on safemedsonline.org attests to the New York Times’ discussion, stating that:
The Food and Drug Administration recently conducted a series of raids in India to uncover counterfeit drugs. The raids yielded large quantities of substandard medicines and resulted in several arrests. However, in India, the penalties for making and selling counterfeit medicines are minimal, the convictions are rare, and the profits are enormous. Since the raids late last year, the problem has only gotten worse.
Alarm bells should definitely ring here. Without quality control, many drugs that appear on international websites do not contain legitimate ingredients. It is a huge gamble to assume your purchased pills are pure or authentic. There’s a great possibility that you might not experience the proper effects of the medication and there is serious potential that you may have toxic reactions to the ingredients in fake versions of the drug. Some websites and online Nootropics communities maintain lists of verified and trustworthy Modafinil vendors, but such vendors do not generally stay on the lists for long. In many cases, a trusted supplier can end up sending out a fake or ineffective batch of pills even after you have developed a long-standing relationship with them. It is almost impossible to protect against this risk.
There is really only one sensible alternative if you find the price of Provigil unreasonable, or if you are contemplating buying potentially contaminated off-label versions from India. Users should purchase Adrafinil from a reputable supplier instead, rather than paying the very serious costs of purchasing from an unreliable source abroad.

Adrafinil vs Modafinil forum


There are many reviews across the internet on individual preferences: Adrafinil or Modafinil. It is all, of course, subjective to user experience. Whilst some remain skeptical towards the newer of the two drugs, Adrafinil, there are huge amounts of successful reviews to be considered. On reddit, jjhurley writes:
Long story short, today is just my 3rd day using adrafinil and I’m impressed with the results so far. I keep reading from people who’ve experienced both adra & moda is that they prefer modafinil. To me it is surprising there would be a whole lot of difference given what we know about adrafinil converting to modafinil once in your system. I understand the conversion takes time but I wouldn’t think that to make a significant impact to different effects.
It is also important to remember that Adrafinil is converted into Modafinil once in the liver. Many users therefore experience the same results with both drugs, and are positive in their opinions of both. DoyouknowmyPW on Reddit concurs, stating that:
I’ve been using Adrafinil and Modafinil for a few weeks now during the workweek. 100-150mg for Modafinil, 200-270 for Adrafinil. I’ve never noticed any painful side-effects, might just be a coincidence. Sharp pain like that could be trapped gas (of course I am not a physician though!). It does help greatly staying more alert during the day. Before I would have issues some days where I am truly struggling to keep my eyes open, especially during meetings. I’ve fallen asleep at least twice for a brief second because my eyes were just too heavy. Since I’ve been taking the morning dose that sleepiness has gone away and I am now on a better sleep schedule because I feel tired when I’m suppose to.
Some users speak of branded versions of the drugs. For example, Akoward on drugs-forum writes:
Recently got a hold of some Nuvigil. Have had previous experience with Olmifon (Adrafinil). As has been said before its much more potent at lower dose that Adrafinil. I only need 1/2 a pill to do what 2x300mg Adrafinils were doing for me. I took a whole Nuvigil the first time and was more productive in that single day that I had been in ages. Got all my work done, worked on personal projects… it was amazing. I will say that some of the physical side effects were a little troubling (ever present tightness in the collarbone to middle neck area, massive restless legs)
It is important to see that with Akoward’s review, despite him alternating to the branded Armodafinil, side-effects were still experienced. This goes to show that Adrafinil, though not manufactured under a moniker, is no less competent in generating the excellent results that might be expected from those drugs which sound more ‘professional’.

Adrafinil vs Modafinil vs Armodafinil


Like Adrafinil and Modafinil, Armodafinil is a stimulant used to combat fatigue. Introduced in 2007, Armodafinil appears under brand names such as Nuvigil, Artvigil, and Waklert. It is purportedly more effective at lower doses than its relatives Adrafinil and Modafinil.
Armodafinil is an enantiopure drug. Enantiopure drugs contain only one of the enantiomers (spoken about earlier), R or S. The R enantiomer is longer acting and is most responsible for the effects of Modafinil specifically. Since the S enantiomer is not as strong, Armodafinil’s dosage is therefore lower. Most doses are 150mg compared to Modafinil’s 200mg standard dose.
Whilst the effects last for roughly the same time, Armodafinil takes longer to reach its peak than Modafinil, and therefore even longer than Adrafinil. This is simply because the S enantiomer reacts and leaves the body faster. Remember, Armodafinil does not have the S enantiomer, whereas Modafinil does. Adrafinil does, too, because Modafinil is a component within it. Because of this, users find that the effects of Armodafinil take longer to make themselves apparent – a potential disadvantage for prospective users.
So, how is Armodafinil processed? Dopamine is a compound existing as neurotransmitter within the body. It is also precursor of other substances including adrenaline. Armodafinil is an indirect dopamine receptor agonist. What this essentially means, then, is that Armodafinil provokes the dopamine levels in the body.
Armodafinil is metabolized in much the similar way as Modafinil. It relies on amide hydrolysis primarily, and enzyme activity from by cytochrome P450 secondly. Amide Hydrolysis refers to the reaction with water of amides – a compound)
As a consequence, this means that is does not rely as much on heavy enzyme activity in the liver. Adrafinil does. This presents further difference that may be considered by potential users. However, it is important to remember to stick to dosage guidance. If taken properly, and often cyclically, Adrafinil is no more threatening to the liver than Modafinil or Armodafinil.
Because Armodafinil, Modafinil and Adrafinil are all very similar in terms of effect, there is much discussion about which is the best. With regard to Modafinil and Armodafinil specifically, some may assume that because small dosages are needed for the latter that it is more efficient. However, it is important to remember individual sensitivity levels. Different drugs can have different reactions for different people. Potency is therefore not the only factor; the personal experience of using either Armodafinil or Modafinil is equally important. A trial and error approach may be necessary, but, of course, extensive research to find the best possible supplement for you is paramount.
In undertaking research, then, you may discover information that suits your needs. For example, it is proposed that, unlike Modafinil, Armodafinil will not actually disturb your existing sleep patterns. Modafinil users might agree a good night’s sleep is difficult to achieve depending on the dosage.
Reddit user guitar1560 states that
I took 50mg two days in a row twice. Couldn’t sleep well the second night both times
Whereas SequenceConvenience writes
I’ve experienced pretty strong sleep changes while taking modafinil, but nothing that has been negative. I actually seem to need less sleep, at least in the sense that it is very easy for me to get out of bed the day after taking modafinil. Then again, I also don’t seem to have much in the way of dreams during those nights.
Armodafinil does not impact sleep pattern. However, with SequenceConvenience’s review, it is clear that some find this a positive effect of Modafinil while others, like guitar1560, may be disappointed.
Respective costs of the drugs might further influence your decision. KimberCT on Longe City tried both Armodafinil and Modafinil, but was swayed somewhat by the price of Nuvigil (the branded name of Armodafinil):
Currently taking 250mg armodafinil daily. To be honest, I kind of prefer modafinil. It seems to have a little more of a quick kick to it. Probably that isomer with a short half life peaking. Other than that, I can’t tell the difference between Nuvigil and modafinil (Sun Pharma). I’d probably have continued taking modafinil, but Cephalon has jacked the price since Nuvigil was FDA approved. With an Rx, Provigil is twice the price of Nuvigil. Their way of getting everyone onto Nuvigil before Provigil’s patent expires.
Adrafinil, meanwhile, can be obtained very cheaply online because it does not exist under a manufactured name. Nevertheless, many of these drugs are safe to use even if they lack a moniker like Provigil or Nuvigil. To stop concerns of the legitimacy of your purchased drug, always ask that your online manufacturer provides a COA (Certificate of Authenticity) on demand. This means that the substance batch has undergone a third-party laboratory analysis to ensure that your purchased drug matches its label and is not contaminated.
A common side-effect of Adrafinil is that the urine can smell different after ingestion of the drug. This is because one of Adrafinil’s metabolites contains a sulphur-based compound, and sulphur is strong smelling in itself.
However, these criticisms are not limited to Adrafinil alone and it should not sway potential users away from this particular drug. Modafinil has also been found to change the odor of urine. For example, PhysicsMaestro on Longe city queries:
I’ve been using modafinil (modalert) for about 8 months now, and regularly noticed a distinct smell of my urine whenever taking it. However, with this armodafinil, I don’t seem to notice it, which worries me a bit (i.e., not really what it states to be). Has anyone else noticed this difference between armodafinil and modafinil? I thought maybe the S-enantiomer could be metabolized and excreted quicker, thus resulting in an early onset smell, but I am just guessing.
Jadamgo answered:
The difference could easily be due to one of the excipients of the tablet, not the active ingredient. It’s also possible that only the S-enantiomer causes the smell, and of course, there’s the possibility that either these pills or the old ones didn’t actually contain modafinil. Sometimes they contain caffeine or dimethylamylamine or other stimulants, either mixed with modafinil or completely replacing it.
PhysicsMaestro thereafter concurrs:
I thought the odorous urine was ubiquitous to all variants of modafinil, resulting from its metabolites. But I guess the smell could be dependent on the enantiomer. I am willing to assume that whatever enzyme metabolizes modafinil to modafinil acid would leave its chirality intact. I don’t think it would be the excipients since the smell is so widely reported with different sources (and the modafinil has a sulfiyl group, so)
Nor does Armodafinil escape the urine issues. An anonymous writer on Erowid.org wrote:
Oh, and the pill tastes awful. Don’t let it get stuck in your mouth. And my pee starts to smell like it, too, but I get used to it
It is therefore important not to be selective of criticism based on what drug you have been swayed by. If you read that Modafinil is apparently “safer” because it does not rely on rampant enzyme activity, then do remember to include other issues such as cost-efficiency and, of course, other side-effects that might become more apparent than rare liver problems. These side-effects might include nausea, chest-pain or a faster heart rate (nhs.uk).
Adrafinil stands out as the most cost-effective, and, though it has been reported to alter urine odor, it is not alone. Modafinil, the more expensive, and Armodafinil, with a longer reaction time, also generate similar side-effects.
As well as reviews on specific effects of Adrafinil, Armodafinil or Modafinil, there are plenty of general overviews to be found around the internet. On Reddit, BitcoinOperatedGirl writes of her experience:
I tried the adrafinil first, starting with a low dose of 200mg one morning. I prepared a capsule and put it in a baggie next to my pillow before I went to sleep. When my alarm clock rang in the morning, I swallowed the capsule, silenced the alarm clock, and went back to sleep. I was expecting the stimulatory effect to eventually wake me up, as a caffeine pill would, but I ended up sleeping for two more hours. I felt a little disappointed after getting up and not feeling any stimulation, so I decided to add an extra 400mg to the mix. The rest of the day, I was in a fairly good mood. I thought that I was maybe a little more energetic and motivated than usual. I was fairly productive and I worked out. The effect wasn’t what I expected, however. I’ve read people on here talking about feeling wired, and “laser beam focus”, but a whole 600mg of adrafinil felt nothing close to what I imagined (I guess I imagined it would feel like a mild dose of ritalin or something). On the upside, I experienced no substantial anxiety, whereas all the amphetamine-like drugs make me very uncomfortably anxious (I really can’t stand them, they feel disgusting to me). I didn’t really feel a crash and I went to bed at my normal hour. I’m experimenting with adrafinil again today. I took 800mg this time. I was feeling particularly tired this morning (cripplingly tired, lethargic really). I definitely feel more energetic now. I’ve gotten some work done, I’m feeling the drive to write walls of text on reddit and I’m going to have a workout in a few minutes. I don’t expect to have any motivational issues today. Maybe I’ll even cook something fun. Only unfortunate side-effect seems to be a mild headache, but advil seems to be taking care of that. I also tried armodafinil a week ago. Took a small 75mg dose in the morning. Same setup as with adrafinil. I also fell back to sleep for 2 hours. I felt pretty anxious that day and also got a headache. I can’t quite be sure the armodafinil is to blame but I suspect it is. Seems much more anxiety-inducing than adrafinil, which is unfortunate given that it seems adrafinil is worse for your liver. Armodafinil is probably just not for me.
Nezxon on LongeCity meanwhile states that:
I’m taking 75mg Adrafinil (Olmifon) twice daily and I haven’t experienced any side effects. I’d like to give Armodafinil a try, perhaps even safer in the long-term than Modafinil is.
These kinds of reviews certainly help to build a solid picture of each drug’s story. Undertaking research like this to decide on which drug is preferable to you is definitely something you should embark on before picking at random a supplement based on one review.

Adrafinil vs Modafinil reddit


The only notable difference in reviews between Modafinil and Adrafinil is that the latter takes longer to take effect. For example, justmodz1 stated that:
adrafinil is the precursor of modafinil in that it came first and led to the discovery of modafinil in fact adrafinil turns into modafinil in the body due to breakdown of it molecules which actually means that the two have the same effects but adrafinil takes longer to take effect.
While KPC100 agreed that:
Adrafinil gets turned into Modafinil in your system. Because of this, you need a much larger dose and it takes longer to take effect.
Although it does have a longer reaction time, this certainly shouldn’t be a downfall of Adrafinil. It is simply a case that Adrafinil’s chemical processing takes a little longer. However, once complete, the results are just as effective as those found with Modafinil. Take into consideration, also, that Adrafinil will certainly stimulate, energize and ultimately shake you awake. The seemingly longer period of time before this happens will soon become irrelevant when the benefits are reaped. Further Reddit reviews compare other aspects of Adrafinil and Modafinil.
Jjhurley, commenting on the actual nature of each drug, states that:
I keep reading from people who’ve experienced both adra & moda is that they prefer modafinil. To me it is surprising there would be a whole lot of difference given what we know about adrafinil converting to modafinil once in your system. I understand the conversion takes time but I wouldn’t think that to make a significant impact to different effects.
While the same user goes on to discuss issues of costing, in the end suggesting that, in terms of price, they would definitely prefer Adrafinil:
I was really hoping to have equal, if not better, experiences on just 200mg of moda. The reason I’d like to not take more than that is simply cost. At $1.50-2.00 per 200mg pill of moda (prices based off the quantities I’d be ordering as well as variation in supplier prices) it’s too costly to have to take twice that for my own personal budget. To be honest, even at $1.50-2.00 per pill/200mg is already high for my budget. I can get 50g of adrafinil for $98 which comes out to up to 50% cheaper a single moda dose/pill of 200mg. If conversion ratios are right and I’d need two pills or 400mg of moda though then my adra would be 75% cheaper.
There are plenty of important aspects to consider when choosing between Modafinil or Adrafinil. Firstly, selecting the safest and most reliable drug should be of paramount interest. Whereas Adrafinil is often tested by third parties and is shipped nationally rather than across sees, Modafinil (both branded and unbranded versions) is often left untested and sent from India. Quality control is a big issue of concern for international pharmacies and should definitely guide your final decision.
Pricing is also important to consider. Although you might think you’re getting a better deal by choosing a cheaper off-label version from India, it is still not as easy to buy Modafinil as it is Adrafinil. Most venders of Modafinil do not accept Paypal. This service offers secure buyer protection. With the option of a legitimate, nationally supplied alternative in Adrafinil, it is illogical to risk your bank account details instead – just to purchase a drug that will likely be contaminated and unsafe
submitted by Ximena556677 to NootropicsTalk [link] [comments]

Ranking Privacy Coins by Anon-set! Dash comes out ahead of Monero!

EDIT Be aware, the moderators of cryptocurrency have SHADOW DELETED without cause the original thread. This is most likely at the request of the XMR community. Also, the Monero community continues to Vote-Brigade this thread. Originally 11-14 upvotes, and even today 5 upvotes, they make sure it stays around 1. This is manipulation.
https://np.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/9gl5xp/cutting_to_the_chase_or_how_to_properly_evaluate/
This causes the post to appear to me, but to everyone else its been deleted. Now, why would they undertake such an underhanded tactic?
End EDIT
There's a lot of talk about anonymity and privacy as it relates to blockchains. Recently a report surfaced mentioning that cryptos are basically bad news for criminals: https://dailyhodl.com/2018/09/16/bitcoin-is-actually-a-money-laundering-tracking-device-that-catches-criminals-report/
TL;DR is at the bottom
Why? Because they're easy to track. Once they've got a single piece of identifying info that's linked to an address (say that coinbase transfer to an exchange) then all transactions are linkable to that id. But, privacy coins are different because they obscure this history (or in some cases 'delete' it all together). However, it can be a little difficult to decide which privacy coin offers the best privacy, along with the best combination of fees, security and usability.
So with no further ado, here is your simple guide to evaluating privacy coins! Like daily tx throughput is a key metric of btc/blockchain adoption and usage, privacy coins have their own 'key metric' to determine their ability to hide your tx history: the size of their anonymity set. This is basically the number of other people with which your transaction is plausibly 'mixed' so at to sever the link between your address and that coin. The greater this number is, the more difficult it is to associate a coin with your address, thus making it more private.
To make this easier to understand, it helps to know the following: All privacy coins do the same thing, just in vastly different ways. What is that thing? Obscuring/removing your linkage to a coin by mixing it with a similar coin denomination from another wallet. Monero is a slight exception to this, since transaction amounts are hidden in the blockchain as well, so there's no need for denominations. Also, your coin is mixed with fake coins that aren't real, instead of coins from other wallets, but no one can tell that from the blockchain so it works.

Dash

It should be noted that in Dash, the anonymity set is the total set of each denomination. So if you send a .1 Dash privateSend transaction, the anonymity set is the set of all .1 Dash. The following only applies if you've bought up more than 70% of the masternodes, and only to transactions that are currently being mixed. Previously mixed transactions cannot be deanoned.
In Dash, it depends on how many rounds you mix. Each coin is once again broken down into standard denominations like 10, 1, .1 .01 Dash. Each round involves a minimum of three different wallets. So take the number of participants and raise it to the rounds you mix-th power, and that is your minimum anonymity set.
So mixing four rounds gives you a minimum anonymity set of (3 participants)4 rounds = 81. Eight rounds gives you a min set of 38 = 6,561. 16 rounds give you a min set of 316 = 43,046,721 which is currently the largest anonymity set of all the privacy coins.
Could be more if more than three wallets were involved in any single mix, which is possible. However, it could be less if the same participants are used per round, which is unlikely. This is still a HUGE anonymity set; however, its probably at least an order of magnitude less than PIVX and ZCoin unless you were to get 4-5 wallets mixing per round. Dash's largest Anon-set is the largest in the private coin space and is around 3x larger than PIVX's.
Still, even 81 could be rightly considered overkill, especially since Considering the nature of privateSend and the random separation between 'minting' and spending, Dash is immune to timing analysis attacks. The determination of which coin to use will come down to your anonymity needs. How private do you need to be?

PIVX

In PIVX, for example, ~10-20% of all pivx held in wallets is 'gathered' by the accumulator (note it never leaves your control) in a central pool of zpiv using standard denominations like 10 zpiv, 1zpiv, .1zpiv etc. This is a configurable setting in the wallet so some may wish to turn it on/off at their discretion, but recent research has shown that 24% of all PIVX held in wallets is private/zpiv, see u/turtleflax's comment below.
After all of that, by using a zero-knowledge proof which cryptographically proves you owned whatever zpiv was minted from your wallet without any linking information to you, zpiv is 'sent' to your wallet and shows up with no transaction history. So the anonymity set is 10%, ~24% nowadays, of all PIVX held in wallets, which is obviously huge.

ZCoin

ZCoin and PIVX uses the same strategy as both implement the ZeroCoin protocol, which itself is just a specification, PIVX and ZCoin are implementations of that spec. Same idea with the denominations. PIVX's implementation is much more advanced however. ZCoin doesn't have an accumulator or anything and its privacy is optional.
However, its not possible to break a Zerocoin/ZCoin/PIVX transaction because there is nothing to break. It would be like trying to guess someone's password just by them logging in and proving they know their password and it works. That doesn't give you any information that would help. Furthermore, the total anonymity set is around 6.5% of the total supply which puts it comfortably in the same region as PIVX.

ZCash

ZCash is an implementation of the ZeroCash protocol which is an improvement on the ZeroCoin protocol. The cool thing about ZCash is that it also hides the amount of the transaction. ZCash's privacy is optional and the blockchain is split between t-addresses and z-addresses. t-addrs are transparent and contain visible balances just like Bitcoin, which ZCash is a software fork of. z-addrs are shielded. ZCash appears to have two kinds of shielded transactions (shielded and fully shielded).
I'm not sure of the difference between them, but according to this handy block explorer: https://explorer.zcha.in/statistics/usage, shielded txs are far more prevalent than fully shielded ones. The difference between them may be that fully shielded txs are transactions between two z-addrs while a tx that is 'just shielded' may be one between a z-addr and a t-addr and possibly a t-addr and a z-addr, but again, I'm not sure.
The developers claim that the anonymity set is very large in comparison to coins like Dash, and since it is based on the ZeroCoin protocol like PIVX and ZCoin, it is reasonable to assume its anon set is similarly large and based on a proportion of the supply, though where among the three it stands is of course up for debate/verification. However, with Dash's recent protocol update to v0.13, privateSend has the largest possible anonymity set.
Zec's anon-set is perhaps as large as the shielded value colume for any time period, also note that is a lower bound, so for the past month: 394989 ZEC would be the total shielded ZEC, so this seems a reasonable lower-bound on the Anon-set. Its hard to Tell between this and PIVX which is larger.

Monero

In Monero, the anonymity set is the number of mixins used at the time of your transaction. Which is currently 11 with the most recent update to bulletproofs. Monero originally had optional privacy where the min mixin was 0 and those transactions were transparent like btc's.
However, having these 0 mixin transactions together with the higher mixin transactions allowed for higher ones to be deanoned, that and 3 forms of timing analysis attacks forced the min mixin to be raised to 3, then 5 then 7 and finally its current static value. With the latest update the ring size, previously a wallet-configurable parameter, is now fixed at 11 for everyone.

TL;DR

So in short, if you want to rank privacy coins by their anon-set size (which is the only thing that matters) the list is as follows:

1. Dash

2. ZeroCoin and ZeroCash implementations: PIVX, ZCoin, ZCash

3. Monero

Note: Each tier represents a range of at least >1 order of magnitude greater anonymity set. So ZCoin, ZCash and PIVX are all grouped together, even though PIVX may have an anon-set 10-50x greater than ZCash or ZCoin (just an example, not a real figure), all three of them are still going to have anon sets 1-4 orders of magnitude greater than Dash, and like 6-7 times greater than Monero. Monero's default min mixin is 7 and the max definable in the gui wallet IIRC is 26 ring size is fixed at 11 for everyone. It is no longer possible to select your own ring size per tx. Be aware however that using higher, rarer ring sizes causes your transaction to stick out.
Due to the nature of how they are selected, there are wide ranges for the anon sets of these coins, except for monero which is fixed at 11 currently. But especially so for that of Dash, which may on occasion cross into fall the grey zone between numbers 1 and 2 due to uncertainty around the number of wallets participating, and the fact that an attacker will never know how many rounds a tx is going through.
And because Dash doesn't rely on encryption for its privacy, if you don't catch/trace the transaction when its happening, i.e. by buying up 70% or more of the masternodes, you can never deanon it. If you use encryption, especially for the entire blockchain, you paint a large target on your blockchain. If your encryption is ever broken, then all past transactions will be deanoned at once, so not good. This is a benefit of steganography over some encryption based privacy schemes. Edit:
Don't worry, my comments and posts are always heavily downvoted, that's how you know they're good stuff!
submitted by thethrowaccount21 to dashpay [link] [comments]

Ranking privacy Coins by there Anon-set size - PIVX is the King of Privacy Coins!

EDIT Be aware, the moderators of cryptocurrency have SHADOW DELETED without cause the original thread. This is most likely at the request of the XMR community. Also, the Monero community continues to Vote-Brigade this thread. Originally 11-14 upvotes, and even today 5 upvotes, they make sure it stays around 1. This is manipulation.
https://np.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/9gl5xp/cutting_to_the_chase_or_how_to_properly_evaluate/
This causes the post to appear to me, but to everyone else its been deleted. Now, why would they undertake such an underhanded tactic?
End EDIT
There's a lot of talk about anonymity and privacy as it relates to blockchains. Recently a report surfaced mentioning that cryptos are basically bad news for criminals: https://dailyhodl.com/2018/09/16/bitcoin-is-actually-a-money-laundering-tracking-device-that-catches-criminals-report/
TL;DR is at the bottom
Why? Because they're easy to track. Once they've got a single piece of identifying info that's linked to an address (say that coinbase transfer to an exchange) then all transactions are linkable to that id. But, privacy coins are different because they obscure this history (or in some cases 'delete' it all together). However, it can be a little difficult to decide which privacy coin offers the best privacy, along with the best combination of fees, security and usability.
So with no further ado, here is your simple guide to evaluating privacy coins! Like daily tx throughput is a key metric of btc/blockchain adoption and usage, privacy coins have their own 'key metric' to determine their ability to hide your tx history: the size of their anonymity set. This is basically the number of other people with which your transaction is plausibly 'mixed' so at to sever the link between your address and that coin. The greater this number is, the more difficult it is to associate a coin with your address, thus making it more private.
To make this easier to understand, it helps to know the following: All privacy coins do the same thing, just in vastly different ways. What is that thing? Obscuring/removing your linkage to a coin by mixing it with a similar coin denomination from another wallet. Monero is a slight exception to this, since transaction amounts are hidden in the blockchain as well, so there's no need for denominations. Also, your coin is mixed with fake coins that aren't real, instead of coins from other wallets, but no one can tell that from the blockchain so it works.

Dash

It should be noted that in Dash, the anonymity set is the total set of each denomination. So if you send a .1 Dash privateSend transaction, the anonymity set is the set of all .1 Dash. The following only applies if you've bought up more than 70% of the masternodes, and only to transactions that are currently being mixed. Previously mixed transactions cannot be deanoned.
In Dash, it depends on how many rounds you mix. Each coin is once again broken down into standard denominations like 10, 1, .1 .01 Dash. Each round involves a minimum of three different wallets. So take the number of participants and raise it to the rounds you mix-th power, and that is your minimum anonymity set.
So mixing four rounds gives you a minimum anonymity set of (3 participants)4 rounds = 81. Eight rounds gives you a min set of 38 = 6,561. 16 rounds give you a min set of 316 = 43,046,721 which is currently the largest anonymity set of all the privacy coins.
Could be more if more than three wallets were involved in any single mix, which is possible. However, it could be less if the same participants are used per round, which is unlikely. This is still a HUGE anonymity set; however, its probably at least an order of magnitude less than PIVX and ZCoin unless you were to get 4-5 wallets mixing per round. Dash's largest Anon-set is the largest in the private coin space and is around 3x larger than PIVX's.
Still, even 81 could be rightly considered overkill, especially since Considering the nature of privateSend and the random separation between 'minting' and spending, Dash is immune to timing analysis attacks. The determination of which coin to use will come down to your anonymity needs. How private do you need to be?

PIVX

In PIVX, for example, ~10-20% of all pivx held in wallets is 'gathered' by the accumulator (note it never leaves your control) in a central pool of zpiv using standard denominations like 10 zpiv, 1zpiv, .1zpiv etc. This is a configurable setting in the wallet so some may wish to turn it on/off at their discretion, but recent research has shown that 24% of all PIVX held in wallets is private/zpiv, see u/turtleflax's comment below.
After all of that, by using a zero-knowledge proof which cryptographically proves you owned whatever zpiv was minted from your wallet without any linking information to you, zpiv is 'sent' to your wallet and shows up with no transaction history. So the anonymity set is 10%, ~24% nowadays, of all PIVX held in wallets, which is obviously huge.

ZCoin

ZCoin and PIVX uses the same strategy as both implement the ZeroCoin protocol, which itself is just a specification, PIVX and ZCoin are implementations of that spec. Same idea with the denominations. PIVX's implementation is much more advanced however. ZCoin doesn't have an accumulator or anything and its privacy is optional.
However, its not possible to break a Zerocoin/ZCoin/PIVX transaction because there is nothing to break. It would be like trying to guess someone's password just by them logging in and proving they know their password and it works. That doesn't give you any information that would help. Furthermore, the total anonymity set is around 6.5% of the total supply which puts it comfortably in the same region as PIVX.

ZCash

ZCash is an implementation of the ZeroCash protocol which is an improvement on the ZeroCoin protocol. The cool thing about ZCash is that it also hides the amount of the transaction. ZCash's privacy is optional and the blockchain is split between t-addresses and z-addresses. t-addrs are transparent and contain visible balances just like Bitcoin, which ZCash is a software fork of. z-addrs are shielded. ZCash appears to have two kinds of shielded transactions (shielded and fully shielded).
I'm not sure of the difference between them, but according to this handy block explorer: https://explorer.zcha.in/statistics/usage, shielded txs are far more prevalent than fully shielded ones. The difference between them may be that fully shielded txs are transactions between two z-addrs while a tx that is 'just shielded' may be one between a z-addr and a t-addr and possibly a t-addr and a z-addr, but again, I'm not sure.
The developers claim that the anonymity set is very large in comparison to coins like Dash, and since it is based on the ZeroCoin protocol like PIVX and ZCoin, it is reasonable to assume its anon set is similarly large and based on a proportion of the supply, though where among the three it stands is of course up for debate/verification. However, with Dash's recent protocol update to v0.13, privateSend has the largest possible anonymity set.
Zec's anon-set is perhaps as large as the shielded value colume for any time period, also note that is a lower bound, so for the past month: 394989 ZEC would be the total shielded ZEC, so this seems a reasonable lower-bound on the Anon-set. Its hard to Tell between this and PIVX which is larger.

Monero

In Monero, the anonymity set is the number of mixins used at the time of your transaction. Which is currently 11 with the most recent update to bulletproofs. Monero originally had optional privacy where the min mixin was 0 and those transactions were transparent like btc's.
However, having these 0 mixin transactions together with the higher mixin transactions allowed for higher ones to be deanoned, that and 3 forms of timing analysis attacks forced the min mixin to be raised to 3, then 5 then 7 and finally its current static value. With the latest update the ring size, previously a wallet-configurable parameter, is now fixed at 11 for everyone.

TL;DR

So in short, if you want to rank privacy coins by their anon-set size (which is the only thing that matters) the list is as follows:

1. Dash

2. ZeroCoin and ZeroCash implementations: PIVX, ZCoin, ZCash

3. Monero

Note: Each tier represents a range of at least >1 order of magnitude greater anonymity set. So ZCoin, ZCash and PIVX are all grouped together, even though PIVX may have an anon-set 10-50x greater than ZCash or ZCoin (just an example, not a real figure), all three of them are still going to have anon sets 1-4 orders of magnitude greater than Dash, and like 6-7 times greater than Monero. Monero's default min mixin is 7 and the max definable in the gui wallet IIRC is 26 ring size is fixed at 11 for everyone. It is no longer possible to select your own ring size per tx. Be aware however that using higher, rarer ring sizes causes your transaction to stick out.
Due to the nature of how they are selected, there are wide ranges for the anon sets of these coins, except for monero which is fixed at 11 currently. But especially so for that of Dash, which may on occasion cross into fall the grey zone between numbers 1 and 2 due to uncertainty around the number of wallets participating, and the fact that an attacker will never know how many rounds a tx is going through.
And because Dash doesn't rely on encryption for its privacy, if you don't catch/trace the transaction when its happening, i.e. by buying up 70% or more of the masternodes, you can never deanon it. If you use encryption, especially for the entire blockchain, you paint a large target on your blockchain. If your encryption is ever broken, then all past transactions will be deanoned at once, so not good. This is a benefit of steganography over some encryption based privacy schemes. Edit:
Don't worry, my comments and posts are always heavily downvoted, that's how you know they're good stuff!
submitted by thethrowaccount21 to pivx [link] [comments]

I ranked the privacy coins by their anon-sets, ZEC came out on top!

EDIT Be aware, the moderators of cryptocurrency have SHADOW DELETED without cause the original thread. This is most likely at the request of the XMR community
https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/9gl5xp/cutting_to_the_chase_or_how_to_properly_evaluate/
This causes the post to appear to me, but to everyone else its been deleted. Now, why would they undertake such an underhanded tactic?
End EDIT
There's a lot of talk about anonymity and privacy as it relates to blockchains. And legacy coins like BTC and BCH that do not have privacy are more effected than those with it. Recently a report surfaced mentioning that cryptos are basically bad news for criminals: https://dailyhodl.com/2018/09/16/bitcoin-is-actually-a-money-laundering-tracking-device-that-catches-criminals-report/
TL;DR is at the bottom
Why? Because they're easy to track. Once they've got a single piece of identifying info that's linked to an address (say that coinbase transfer to an exchange) then all transactions are linkable to that id. But, privacy coins are different because they obscure this history (or in some cases 'delete' it all together). However, it can be a little difficult to decide which privacy coin offers the best privacy, along with the best combination of fees, security and usability.
So with no further ado, here is your simple guide to evaluating privacy coins! Like daily tx throughput is a key metric of btc/blockchain adoption and usage, privacy coins have their own 'key metric' to determine their ability to hide your tx history: the size of their anonymity set. This is basically the number of other people with which your transaction is plausibly 'mixed' so at to sever the link between your address and that coin. The greater this number is, the more difficult it is to associate a coin with your address, thus making it more private.
To make this easier to understand, it helps to know the following: All privacy coins do the same thing, just in vastly different ways. What is that thing? Obscuring/removing your linkage to a coin by mixing it with a similar coin denomination from another wallet. Monero is a slight exception to this, since transaction amounts are hidden in the blockchain as well, so there's no need for denominations. Also, your coin is mixed with fake coins that aren't real, instead of coins from other wallets, but no one can tell that from the blockchain so it works.

PIVX

In PIVX, for example, ~10-20% of all pivx held in wallets is 'gathered' by the accumulator (note it never leaves your control) in a central pool of zpiv using standard denominations like 10 zpiv, 1zpiv, .1zpiv etc. This is a configurable setting in the wallet so some may wish to turn it on/off at their discretion, but recent research has shown that 24% of all PIVX held in wallets is private/zpiv, see u/turtleflax's comment below.
After all of that, by using a zero-knowledge proof which cryptographically proves you owned whatever zpiv was minted from your wallet without any linking information to you, zpiv is 'sent' to your wallet and shows up with no transaction history. So the anonymity set is 10%, ~24% nowadays, of all PIVX held in wallets, which is obviously huge.

ZCoin

ZCoin and PIVX uses the same strategy as both implement the ZeroCoin protocol, which itself is just a specification, PIVX and ZCoin are implementations of that spec. Same idea with the denominations. PIVX's implementation is much more advanced however. ZCoin doesn't have an accumulator or anything and its privacy is optional.
However, its not possible to break a Zerocoin/ZCoin/PIVX transaction because there is nothing to break. It would be like trying to guess someone's password just by them logging in and proving they know their password and it works. That doesn't give you any information that would help. Furthermore, the total anonymity set is around 6.5% of the total supply which puts it comfortably in the same region as PIVX.

ZCash

ZCash is an implementation of the ZeroCash protocol which is an improvement on the ZeroCoin protocol. The cool thing about ZCash is that it also hides the amount of the transaction. ZCash's privacy is optional and the blockchain is split between t-addresses and z-addresses. t-addrs are transparent and contain visible balances just like Bitcoin, which ZCash is a software fork of. z-addrs are shielded. ZCash appears to have two kinds of shielded transactions (shielded and fully shielded).
I'm not sure of the difference between them, but according to this handy block explorer: https://explorer.zcha.in/statistics/usage, shielded txs are far more prevalent than fully shielded ones. The difference between them may be that fully shielded txs are transactions between two z-addrs while a tx that is 'just shielded' may be one between a z-addr and a t-addr and possibly a t-addr and a z-addr, but again, I'm not sure.
The developers claim that the anonymity set is very large in comparison to coins like Dash, and since it is based on the ZeroCoin protocol like PIVX and ZCoin, it is reasonable to assume its anon set is similarly large and based on a proportion of the supply, though where among the three it stands is of course up for debate/verification. Perhaps as large as the shielded value colume for any time period, also note that is a lower bound, so for the past month: 394989 ZEC would be the total shielded ZEC, so this seems a reasonable lower-bound on the Anon-set. Its hard to Tell between this and PIVX which is larger.

Dash

In Dash, it depends on how many rounds you mix. Each coin is once again broken down into standard denominations like 10, 1, .1 .01 Dash. Each round involves a minimum of three different wallets. So take the number of participants and raise it to the rounds you mix-th power, and that is your minimum anonymity set. So mixing four rounds gives you a minimum anonymity set of (3 participants)4 rounds = 81. Eight rounds gives you a min set of 38 = 6,561.
Could be more if more than three wallets were involved in any single mix, which is possible. However, it could be less if the same participants are used per round, which is unlikely. This is still a HUGE anonymity set; however, its probably at least an order of magnitude less than PIVX and ZCoin unless you were to get 4-5 wallets mixing per round. Still, even 81 could be rightly considered overkill, especially since considering the nature of privateSend and the random separation between 'minting' and spending makes Dash immune to timing analysis attacks. The determination of which coin to use will come down to your anonymity needs. How private do you need to be?

Monero

In Monero, the anonymity set is the number of mixins used at the time of your transaction. Which is currently 7. Monero originally had optional privacy where the min mixin was 0 and those transactions were transparent like btc's. However, having these 0 mixin transactions together with the higher mixin transactions allowed for higher ones to be deanoned, that and 3 forms of timing analysis attacks forced the min mixin to be raised to 3, then 5 and now 7.

TL;DR

So in short, if you want to rank privacy coins by their anon-set size (which is the only thing that matters) the list is as follows:

1. ZeroCoin and ZeroCash implementations: PIVX, ZCoin, ZCash

2. Dash

3. Monero

Note: Each tier represents a range of at least >1 order of magnitude greater anonymity set. So ZCoin, ZCash and PIVX are all grouped together, even though PIVX may have an anon-set 10-50x greater than ZCash or ZCoin (just an example, not a real figure), all three of them are still going to have anon sets 1-4 orders of magnitude greater than Dash, and like 6-7 greater than Monero. Monero's default min mixin is 7 and the max definable in the gui wallet IIRC is 26. Be aware however that using higher, rarer ring sizes causes your transaction to stick out.
Due to the nature of how they are selected, there are wide ranges for the anon sets of these coins, except for monero. But especially so for that of Dash, which may on occasion cross into the grey zone between numbers 1 and 2 due to uncertainty around the number of wallets participating, and the fact that an attacker will never know how many rounds a tx is going through.
And because Dash doesn't rely on encryption for its privacy, if you don't catch/trace the transaction when its happening, i.e. by buying up 70% or more of the masternodes, you can never deanon it. If you use encryption, especially for the entire blockchain, you paint a large target on your blockchain. If your encryption is ever broken, then all past transactions will be deanoned at once, so not good. This is a benefit of steganography over some encryption based privacy schemes. Edit:
Don't worry, my comments and posts are always heavily downvoted, that's how you know they're good stuff!
submitted by thethrowaccount21 to zec [link] [comments]

Link Collection - All Recent Core Team Communications (incl. Roadmap)

Last updated: Mar 29th, 2018

2 important things first:

General Note

Table of contents

  1. Communications
  2. Guides & Instructional links
  3. Key people to follow on Twitter
  4. Dash Core is hiring
  5. Quarterly Summaries
  6. Notable Core Team Proposals
  7. Dash Whitepapers
  8. Dash Technology Peer-reviewed
  9. Addendum: Misconceptions on Dash cleared up

Communications

  1. The birth of Dash's Governance: Self-sustainable Decentralized Governance by Blockchain
  2. 'We're Doing the Planning That Takes Us to 1 Billion" - Ryan Taylor, Dash Director of Finance
  3. The philosophy behind the DASH reward split by (now) Dash Core CEO Ryan Taylor
  4. Dash's Ryan Taylor at TNABC Bitcoin Miami 2017 (Best presentation on Dash so far!)
  5. What is DASH & Where Is It Going? 2017 DASH Open House
  6. Hong Kong | Research and Planning - by Evan Duffield
  7. Dash Roadmap to Evolution
  8. How To Enable On-Chain Scaling by Evan Duffield
  9. DFN - Interview with Evan on Dash's Roadmap
  10. Open Letter From Evan and Ryan Regarding Dash Marketing
  11. Wachsman PR - Q2 project closure report
  12. Interview With The Crypto Show! - Evan Duffield
  13. Dash Improvement Proposal No. 1 - DIP001
  14. Important information regarding wallet backups
  15. Dash Labs Network Update
  16. Copay Wallet going into closed Alpha Testing
  17. 1st Annual Dash Conference: London Keynote Professional HQ Recording
  18. DASH – DIGITAL CASH by Robert Wiecko at SWITCH! 2017
  19. Crucial information to all proposal owners: Do NOT use multisig addresses as payout destinations!
  20. Interview With Ryan Taylor, The CEO Of Dash Core Team
  21. Ryan Taylor at the World Blockchain Forum
  22. Ryan Taylor interview with Crypto Trader (MSNBC Africa)
  23. Dash Core Community Update
  24. Dash Core 12.2 Release
  25. Dash CEO Ryan Taylor: „Dash is in many ways a better Bitcoin“
  26. Update from Dash Core on Business Development
  27. How DASH is resistant to retargeting issues
  28. Dash presentation at the Euro Finance Tech in Frankfurt by essra
  29. Link collection of Dash's 2017 achievements
  30. What Is a DAO and Why Is It Revolutionary?
  31. Dash: The First DAO
  32. Welcome Bradley Zastrow - Director of Global Business Development
  33. Interview with Ryan Taylor, IR4 Podcast #12 (January 2018)
  34. Chuck Williams at Anarchapulco 2018 on Dash
  35. Dash Force Podcast E42 with Chuck Williams on Dash Evolution
  36. Evolution Demo #1 - The First Dash DAP
  37. Dash Force Podcast E43 - Feat. Fernando Gutierrez (Dash Core CMO)
  38. Our New Approach to Communications with the Community
  39. Dash Community Q&A - March 29th, 2018

Guides & Instructional links

  1. Dash Developer Documentation
  2. Upgrade Instructions for Masternodes (12.2)
  3. Upgrade Instructions for End Users (12.2)
  4. Upgrade Instructions for Masternodes (12.1)
  5. Upgrade Instructions for End Users (12.1)
  6. Paper Wallet Setup Guide
  7. Trezor Guide for Masternode Operators
  8. 8 Steps to a Successful Proposal
  9. Masternode Boot Camp by solarguy2003
  10. DASH 101 Video Series

Key people to follow on Twitter

  1. Ryan Taylor, CEO of Dash Core Inc.
  2. Fernando Gutierrez, CMO of Dash Core Inc.
  3. Bradley Zastrow, Chief of Business Development at Dash Core Inc.
  4. Andy Freer, CTO of Dash Core Inc.
  5. Chuck Williams, Head of UX Development at Dash Core Inc.
  6. Robert Wiecko, PM of Dash Core Inc.
  7. Joel Valenzuela, Dash Force
  8. Mark Mason, Dash Force
  9. Amanda B. Johnson
  10. Scott Farnsworth, The Dash Racer

Dash Core is hiring!

  1. Internship at Dash Labs
  2. DashLabs - Trezor Engineer
  3. GPU Accelerator Project
  4. DevOps Engineer @ Dash
  5. Infrastructure Manager @ Dash
  6. Sr. Backend Developer Role @ Dash

2017 Quarterly Summaries from Dash Core

  1. Dash Core Team Q1 2017 Summary Call
  2. Dash Core Team Q2 2017 Summary Call
  3. Dash Core Team Q3 2017 Summary Call
  4. Dash Core Team Q4 2017 Summary Call

2016 Quarterly Summaries from Dash Core

  1. Q1 2016
  2. Q2 2016
  3. Q3 2016
  4. Q4 2016

Notable Core Team proposals:

  1. Dash sponsored Blockchain Research in Arizona State University
  2. Conferences - The Trading Show
  3. Money 20/20 in London
  4. Conferences - BTC & Blockchain International Summit
  5. Dash Conference 2017 (London)
  6. Blockchain & Bitcoin Conference (Stockholm)

Dash Whitepapers

  1. Original Dash Whitepaper
Note: Previously the Evolution Whitepapers were linked in this section. These papers were written back in 2015 and are outdated, because Dash Evolution has seen a massive re-design and has been developed much further than those papers could have predicted. A new version will be posted here and elsewhere as soon as it is available.

Dash Technology Peer-reviewed

  1. Dash PrivateSend Peer Review by Kristov Atlas and Core Team's Response
  2. Dash Governance Peer Review by IOHK and Dash Core Team's Response

Addendum: Misconceptions on Dash cleared up

  1. What has Dash to offer other than features any other coin could just copy?
  2. InstantXploit? Cool Name, No Threat
  3. "Lazy Masternode" attack theory thoroughly debunked (see my comment)
  4. Hardware vs Software scaling - Why SegWit is not the savior of cryptocurrency
  5. How solid is PrivateSend, really? and Broken privacy promises vs Dash
  6. Dash has better wealth distribution than almost all top cryptos
  7. How is Dash NOT a ponzi scheme?
  8. PSA: DASH is not a CryptoNote clone - DashCOIN is
  9. Discussion/clarification on Dash's opensource approach
  10. Evil Masternode tyrants ruling over us?! and Masternodes in Dash = The rich get richer?
  11. Has Dash's development steadily declined over the past few months?
  12. The major advantage of optional privacy
  13. Ridiculous comments on Dash - by Kurt Robinson
  14. The Dash Masternode Network: A Response to Critics - by Eric Sammons
  15. Analysis of the first day in mining Dash by Ryan Taylor, (then) Director of Finance at Dash Core:
  16. How to Prevent the Hostile Takeover of a Blockchain: Eric Sammons on Dash Governance
  17. Official clarification on the "Instamine" issue (Fastmine actually)
  18. Evan Duffield has no more than 256,000 Dash and will give away 80% of that to fund DAOs within DASH. Follow-up: Part of the funds has already been used to found the Dash Labs research arm in Hong Kong. The lab is fully maintained through Duffield's private funding. No Treasury proposal for it exists.
  19. 10 Stupid Things People Say About Dash And How To Respond
  20. Sporks: One of the foundations of Dash's success
  21. There is no so called "Master Private Key" in Dash and there never has been. Sporks (explained above) have no relation to user funds, as the source code easily proves.
  22. Trolls vs. Users: The Limited Importance of Online Communities
  23. Dash PrivateSend and usage of denomination inputs
  24. Valuable link list from Dash Force member Mastermined
  25. "But Dash PrivateSend has a much smaller ambiguity set! Its privacy is broken!!!"
  26. Succinct refutation on Masternodes "artifically" blowing up the price & Evan Duffield being the only miner at launch
  27. Bitcoin Cash vs Dash
  28. "Dash rebranded from Darkcoin to distance itself from its dark history!!" -> Not at all. Nothing about its history is "dark" and more importantly this thread called "The Birth of Darkcoin" is stickied by Evan Duffield himself on the official main forum.
  29. "Evan Duffield lied about the launch time so he would get an unfair advantage at mining!" -> Quotes from the original launch thread on Bitcointalk: "Awesome! We'll be launching soon. Things are looking good." and "Launch is being moved to 11PM EST!". As the genesis block proves launch took place at 03:54:41 AM (UTC) on Jan. 19th, 2014 or 10:54:41 PM (EST), Jan. 18th, 2014. So if anything it was 5 minutes early.
  30. "But Litecoin is superior to Dash!!" - Really? Let's compare - Here's another sober look at the facts on this issue.
  31. Why Dash is not prone to cluster analysis attacks
  32. How "centralized" is Dash, really? & Which project is actually centralized here?
  33. From the day Dash started trading until late April 2014 anyone had the chance to buy Dash for less than 1 USD
  34. Dash Core developer MooCowMoo on alleged Masternode centralization and PrivateSend
  35. Why Masternodes have no incentive to vote in a proposal to pay themselves a large sum of Dash
  36. What is Dash's competitive edge?
  37. Why saying "Dash is a company" is false: Dash Core Inc., a company based in Scottsdale, Arizona is not the decentralized network called Dash. The network, consistent of over 4.5k globally distributed, decentralized Masternodes decided to hire and fund the company Dash Core Inc. to develop said network. This is the distinguishing property of Dash being a DAO, so it's understandable people have difficulty grasping the concept. Similarly Dash does not have a CEO, while Dash Core Inc. -obviously- has.
  38. Dash does not and never had a "dev tax": Dash has a Treasury and its distribution is being voted on each month. Only those funds that have been approved by the Masternode network go to proposal owners. The Treasury is capped at 10% of the accumulated block reward of one month. There is no central authority non-requested or non-approved funds go to and there never has been. Those funds are simply not created. So you can have months in which only 8% of the budget is being paid out, with the remaining 2% going to nobody due to not being mined.
  39. "B-but Evan Duffield can roll back the last 24 hours of the blockchain with the flick of a button!" Complete bullshit. The key in question refers to requiring a Masternode to re-validate its pre-existing blockchain in order to ensure it's on the right chain. Masternodes have nothing do with putting or removing transactions into or from the blockchain, only the miners can do that, thus claiming someone can "roll back the blockchain" in Dash is a malicious lie and a desperate attempt to make Dash look centralized when it's not. In short: No such button exists, ever existed or will ever exist.
  40. Why the total coin supply was changed or "The 84 million coin"-Question

General notes:

The Dash community is well aware that during most of its history this project has been under attack by competitors, many of which are trying to portray Dash (among many other things) as a failure. This is oxymoronic, because nobody hates on failures, especially not for 4 successful years in a row.
If you want a quick history lesson, here's a comment I made on where the Dash hate originated from back in 2014
Another, longer history lesson
Remain skeptical towards sensational accusations without evidence. Our community is helpful, knowledgeable and more than happy to answer any questions, as we have done many times on this subreddit. Still, we're all only human, have limited resources and we're just one project among many (always among the top, though!). Stakeholders and investors of other projects will always have an agenda to smear what they perceive as competition (I have yet to see our community actively go after other projects, though).
Just remember the Bullshit Asymmetry: "The amount of energy required to refute bullshit is at least an order of magnitude larger than to produce it." So it would be very unjust to expect a refutation on the spot all of the time. Prefer taking the initiative by asking the community directly about the claim you're confronted with. This community has proven many times to possess the integrity required to admit to technological shortcomings, but at the same time we'll never hesitate to call out illegitimate claims and accusations, of which there are many, for what they are.
The most common and most empty attack is "Dash is a scam".
More importantly you have to ask the critic just this one question: Who was scammed? The answer usually consists of complete silence or attempts to change the topic. This may sound all very defensive to someone who has never experienced the kind of FUD Dash has faced over the years, but the falsehoods we've refuted above are still being perpetuated by a very lonely but also very loud minority.

Not an ICO project

Regarding Dash's finances: Despite what many people assume influenced by the ICO insanity of the recent past, Dash did not have an ICO and Dash does not depend on 3rd party funding/investors. It is self funded from the blockchain and thus an entirely independent organization that does exactly what it wants, not what any angel investors want us to do. Dash is the first currency in history to achieve that.

Quick incomplete rundown of Dash's features

In fact Dash pioneered almost every single one of its features making it one of the most prolific innovators in the cryptocurrency space. Before Dash invented them, none of these features existed:
To re-iterate a previous point:
Dash has been copied by several dozen other projects either completely or through selected features indicating a strong approval of its technology within the wider cryptocurrency industry. The most copied feature by far is the Masternode system and the financial self-reliance it provides.
submitted by Basilpop to dashpay [link] [comments]

Does BCH need on-chain privacy? Here I list all the most popular privacy methods and compare them by anonymity set, choose the one that's best for your chain!

EDIT Be aware, the moderators of cryptocurrency have SHADOW DELETED without cause the original thread. This is most likely at the request of the XMR community. Also, the Monero community continues to Vote-Brigade this thread. Originally 11-14 upvotes, and even today 5 upvotes, they make sure it stays around 1. This is manipulation.
https://np.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/9gl5xp/cutting_to_the_chase_or_how_to_properly_evaluate/
This causes the post to appear to me, but to everyone else its been deleted. Now, why would they undertake such an underhanded tactic?
End EDIT
There's a lot of talk about anonymity and privacy as it relates to blockchains. Recently a report surfaced mentioning that cryptos are basically bad news for criminals: https://dailyhodl.com/2018/09/16/bitcoin-is-actually-a-money-laundering-tracking-device-that-catches-criminals-report/
TL;DR is at the bottom
Why? Because they're easy to track. Once they've got a single piece of identifying info that's linked to an address (say that coinbase transfer to an exchange) then all transactions are linkable to that id. But, privacy coins are different because they obscure this history (or in some cases 'delete' it all together). However, it can be a little difficult to decide which privacy coin offers the best privacy, along with the best combination of fees, security and usability.
So with no further ado, here is your simple guide to evaluating privacy coins! Like daily tx throughput is a key metric of btc/blockchain adoption and usage, privacy coins have their own 'key metric' to determine their ability to hide your tx history: the size of their anonymity set. This is basically the number of other people with which your transaction is plausibly 'mixed' so at to sever the link between your address and that coin. The greater this number is, the more difficult it is to associate a coin with your address, thus making it more private.
To make this easier to understand, it helps to know the following: All privacy coins do the same thing, just in vastly different ways. What is that thing? Obscuring/removing your linkage to a coin by mixing it with a similar coin denomination from another wallet. Monero is a slight exception to this, since transaction amounts are hidden in the blockchain as well, so there's no need for denominations. Also, your coin is mixed with fake coins that aren't real, instead of coins from other wallets, but no one can tell that from the blockchain so it works.

Dash

It should be noted that in Dash, the anonymity set is the total set of each denomination. So if you send a .1 Dash privateSend transaction, the anonymity set is the set of all .1 Dash. The following only applies if you've bought up more than 70% of the masternodes, and only to transactions that are currently being mixed. Previously mixed transactions cannot be deanoned.
In Dash, it depends on how many rounds you mix. Each coin is once again broken down into standard denominations like 10, 1, .1 .01 Dash. Each round involves a minimum of three different wallets. So take the number of participants and raise it to the rounds you mix-th power, and that is your minimum anonymity set.
So mixing four rounds gives you a minimum anonymity set of (3 participants)4 rounds = 81. Eight rounds gives you a min set of 38 = 6,561. 16 rounds give you a min set of 316 = 43,046,721 which is currently the largest anonymity set of all the privacy coins.
Could be more if more than three wallets were involved in any single mix, which is possible. However, it could be less if the same participants are used per round, which is unlikely. This is still a HUGE anonymity set; however, its probably at least an order of magnitude less than PIVX and ZCoin unless you were to get 4-5 wallets mixing per round. Dash's largest Anon-set is the largest in the private coin space and is around 3x larger than PIVX's.
Still, even 81 could be rightly considered overkill, especially since Considering the nature of privateSend and the random separation between 'minting' and spending, Dash is immune to timing analysis attacks. The determination of which coin to use will come down to your anonymity needs. How private do you need to be?

PIVX

In PIVX, for example, ~10-20% of all pivx held in wallets is 'gathered' by the accumulator (note it never leaves your control) in a central pool of zpiv using standard denominations like 10 zpiv, 1zpiv, .1zpiv etc. This is a configurable setting in the wallet so some may wish to turn it on/off at their discretion, but recent research has shown that 24% of all PIVX held in wallets is private/zpiv, see u/turtleflax's comment below.
After all of that, by using a zero-knowledge proof which cryptographically proves you owned whatever zpiv was minted from your wallet without any linking information to you, zpiv is 'sent' to your wallet and shows up with no transaction history. So the anonymity set is 10%, ~24% nowadays, of all PIVX held in wallets, which is obviously huge.

ZCoin

ZCoin and PIVX uses the same strategy as both implement the ZeroCoin protocol, which itself is just a specification, PIVX and ZCoin are implementations of that spec. Same idea with the denominations. PIVX's implementation is much more advanced however. ZCoin doesn't have an accumulator or anything and its privacy is optional.
However, its not possible to break a Zerocoin/ZCoin/PIVX transaction because there is nothing to break. It would be like trying to guess someone's password just by them logging in and proving they know their password and it works. That doesn't give you any information that would help. Furthermore, the total anonymity set is around 6.5% of the total supply which puts it comfortably in the same region as PIVX.

ZCash

ZCash is an implementation of the ZeroCash protocol which is an improvement on the ZeroCoin protocol. The cool thing about ZCash is that it also hides the amount of the transaction. ZCash's privacy is optional and the blockchain is split between t-addresses and z-addresses. t-addrs are transparent and contain visible balances just like Bitcoin, which ZCash is a software fork of. z-addrs are shielded. ZCash appears to have two kinds of shielded transactions (shielded and fully shielded).
I'm not sure of the difference between them, but according to this handy block explorer: https://explorer.zcha.in/statistics/usage, shielded txs are far more prevalent than fully shielded ones. The difference between them may be that fully shielded txs are transactions between two z-addrs while a tx that is 'just shielded' may be one between a z-addr and a t-addr and possibly a t-addr and a z-addr, but again, I'm not sure.
The developers claim that the anonymity set is very large in comparison to coins like Dash, and since it is based on the ZeroCoin protocol like PIVX and ZCoin, it is reasonable to assume its anon set is similarly large and based on a proportion of the supply, though where among the three it stands is of course up for debate/verification. However, with Dash's recent protocol update to v0.13, privateSend has the largest possible anonymity set.
Zec's anon-set is perhaps as large as the shielded value colume for any time period, also note that is a lower bound, so for the past month: 394989 ZEC would be the total shielded ZEC, so this seems a reasonable lower-bound on the Anon-set. Its hard to Tell between this and PIVX which is larger.

Monero

In Monero, the anonymity set is the number of mixins used at the time of your transaction. Which is currently 11 with the most recent update to bulletproofs. Monero originally had optional privacy where the min mixin was 0 and those transactions were transparent like btc's.
However, having these 0 mixin transactions together with the higher mixin transactions allowed for higher ones to be deanoned, that and 3 forms of timing analysis attacks forced the min mixin to be raised to 3, then 5 then 7 and finally its current static value. With the latest update the ring size, previously a wallet-configurable parameter, is now fixed at 11 for everyone.

TL;DR

So in short, if you want to rank privacy coins by their anon-set size (which is the only thing that matters) the list is as follows:

1. Dash

2. ZeroCoin and ZeroCash implementations: PIVX, ZCoin, ZCash

3. Monero

Note: Each tier represents a range of at least >1 order of magnitude greater anonymity set. So ZCoin, ZCash and PIVX are all grouped together, even though PIVX may have an anon-set 10-50x greater than ZCash or ZCoin (just an example, not a real figure), all three of them are still going to have anon sets 1-4 orders of magnitude greater than Dash, and like 6-7 times greater than Monero. Monero's default min mixin is 7 and the max definable in the gui wallet IIRC is 26 ring size is fixed at 11 for everyone. It is no longer possible to select your own ring size per tx. Be aware however that using higher, rarer ring sizes causes your transaction to stick out.
Due to the nature of how they are selected, there are wide ranges for the anon sets of these coins, except for monero which is fixed at 11 currently. But especially so for that of Dash, which may on occasion cross into fall the grey zone between numbers 1 and 2 due to uncertainty around the number of wallets participating, and the fact that an attacker will never know how many rounds a tx is going through.
And because Dash doesn't rely on encryption for its privacy, if you don't catch/trace the transaction when its happening, i.e. by buying up 70% or more of the masternodes, you can never deanon it. If you use encryption, especially for the entire blockchain, you paint a large target on your blockchain. If your encryption is ever broken, then all past transactions will be deanoned at once, so not good. This is a benefit of steganography over some encryption based privacy schemes. Edit:
Don't worry, my comments and posts are always heavily downvoted, that's how you know they're good stuff!
submitted by thethrowaccount21 to btc [link] [comments]

Cutting to the chase or how to properly evaluate privacy coins - If you're into conspiracies and privacy, this thread is for you!

EDIT 2 I have been banned from cryptocurrency because of this thread. The reincarnation of this thread, since they shadow deleted the cross-posted original, has also been shadow deleted from the following subs:
Link - Click me! cryptocurrency
Link - Click me! xmrtrader
Link - Click me! monero
Link - Click me! zcoin
Which shows you the extent of control the xmr community has over reddit. This is a nice juicy conspiracy for you. Privacy-focused crypto community employs censorship, vote brigading and ridicule in order to hide information that they consider unfavorable to their coin.
End EDIT 2
EDIT Be aware, the moderators of cryptocurrency have SHADOW DELETED without cause the original thread. This is most likely at the request of the XMR community
https://np.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/9gl5xp/cutting_to_the_chase_or_how_to_properly_evaluate/
This causes the post to appear to me, but to everyone else its been deleted. Now, why would they undertake such an underhanded tactic?
End EDIT
There's a lot of talk about anonymity and privacy as it relates to blockchains. Recently a report surfaced mentioning that cryptos are basically bad news for criminals: https://dailyhodl.com/2018/09/16/bitcoin-is-actually-a-money-laundering-tracking-device-that-catches-criminals-report/
TL;DR is at the bottom
Why? Because they're easy to track. Once they've got a single piece of identifying info that's linked to an address (say that coinbase transfer to an exchange) then all transactions are linkable to that id. But, privacy coins are different because they obscure this history (or in some cases 'delete' it all together). However, it can be a little difficult to decide which privacy coin offers the best privacy, along with the best combination of fees, security and usability.
So with no further ado, here is your simple guide to evaluating privacy coins! Like daily tx throughput is a key metric of btc/blockchain adoption and usage, privacy coins have their own 'key metric' to determine their ability to hide your tx history: the size of their anonymity set. This is basically the number of other people with which your transaction is plausibly 'mixed' so at to sever the link between your address and that coin. The greater this number is, the more difficult it is to associate a coin with your address, thus making it more private.
To make this easier to understand, it helps to know the following: All privacy coins do the same thing, just in vastly different ways. What is that thing? Obscuring/removing your linkage to a coin by mixing it with a similar coin denomination from another wallet. Monero is a slight exception to this, since transaction amounts are hidden in the blockchain as well, so there's no need for denominations. Also, your coin is mixed with fake coins that aren't real, instead of coins from other wallets, but no one can tell that from the blockchain so it works.

PIVX

In PIVX, for example, ~10-20% of all pivx held in wallets is 'gathered' by the accumulator (note it never leaves your control) in a central pool of zpiv using standard denominations like 10 zpiv, 1zpiv, .1zpiv etc. This is a configurable setting in the wallet so some may wish to turn it on/off at their discretion, but recent research has shown that 24% of all PIVX held in wallets is private/zpiv, see u/turtleflax's comment below.
After all of that, by using a zero-knowledge proof which cryptographically proves you owned whatever zpiv was minted from your wallet without any linking information to you, zpiv is 'sent' to your wallet and shows up with no transaction history. So the anonymity set is 10%, ~24% nowadays, of all PIVX held in wallets, which is obviously huge.

ZCoin

ZCoin and PIVX uses the same strategy as both implement the ZeroCoin protocol, which itself is just a specification, PIVX and ZCoin are implementations of that spec. Same idea with the denominations. PIVX's implementation is much more advanced however. ZCoin doesn't have an accumulator or anything and its privacy is optional.
However, its not possible to break a Zerocoin/ZCoin/PIVX transaction because there is nothing to break. It would be like trying to guess someone's password just by them logging in and proving they know their password and it works. That doesn't give you any information that would help. Furthermore, the total anonymity set is around 6.5% of the total supply which puts it comfortably in the same region as PIVX.

ZCash

ZCash is an implementation of the ZeroCash protocol which is an improvement on the ZeroCoin protocol. The cool thing about ZCash is that it also hides the amount of the transaction. ZCash's privacy is optional and the blockchain is split between t-addresses and z-addresses. t-addrs are transparent and contain visible balances just like Bitcoin, which ZCash is a software fork of. z-addrs are shielded. ZCash appears to have two kinds of shielded transactions (shielded and fully shielded).
I'm not sure of the difference between them, but according to this handy block explorer: https://explorer.zcha.in/statistics/usage, shielded txs are far more prevalent than fully shielded ones. The difference between them may be that fully shielded txs are transactions between two z-addrs while a tx that is 'just shielded' may be one between a z-addr and a t-addr and possibly a t-addr and a z-addr, but again, I'm not sure.
The developers claim that the anonymity set is very large in comparison to coins like Dash, and since it is based on the ZeroCoin protocol like PIVX and ZCoin, it is reasonable to assume its anon set is similarly large and based on a proportion of the supply, though where among the three it stands is of course up for debate/verification. Perhaps as large as the shielded value colume for any time period, also note that is a lower bound, so for the past month: 394989 ZEC would be the total shielded ZEC, so this seems a reasonable lower-bound on the Anon-set. Its hard to Tell between this and PIVX which is larger.

Dash

In Dash, it depends on how many rounds you mix. Each coin is once again broken down into standard denominations like 10, 1, .1 .01 Dash. Each round involves a minimum of three different wallets. So take the number of participants and raise it to the rounds you mix-th power, and that is your minimum anonymity set. So mixing four rounds gives you a minimum anonymity set of (3 participants)4 rounds = 81. Eight rounds gives you a min set of 38 = 6,561.
Could be more if more than three wallets were involved in any single mix, which is possible. However, it could be less if the same participants are used per round, which is unlikely. This is still a HUGE anonymity set; however, its probably at least an order of magnitude less than PIVX and ZCoin unless you were to get 4-5 wallets mixing per round. Still, even 81 could be rightly considered overkill, especially since considering the nature of privateSend and the random separation between 'minting' and spending makes Dash immune to timing analysis attacks. The determination of which coin to use will come down to your anonymity needs. How private do you need to be?

Monero

In Monero, the anonymity set is the number of mixins used at the time of your transaction. Which is currently 11 with the most recent update to bulletproofs. Monero originally had optional privacy where the min mixin was 0 and those transactions were transparent like btc's.
However, having these 0 mixin transactions together with the higher mixin transactions allowed for higher ones to be deanoned, that and 3 forms of timing analysis attacks forced the min mixin to be raised to 3, then 5 then 7 and finally its current static value. With the latest update the ring size, previously a wallet-configurable parameter, is now fixed at 11 for everyone.

TL;DR

So in short, if you want to rank privacy coins by their anon-set size (which is the only thing that matters) the list is as follows:

1. ZeroCoin and ZeroCash implementations: PIVX, ZCoin, ZCash

2. Dash

3. Monero

Note: Each tier represents a range of at least >1 order of magnitude greater anonymity set. So ZCoin, ZCash and PIVX are all grouped together, even though PIVX may have an anon-set 10-50x greater than ZCash or ZCoin (just an example, not a real figure), all three of them are still going to have anon sets 1-4 orders of magnitude greater than Dash, and like 6-7 greater than Monero. Monero's default min mixin default ring size is 11 and the max definable in the gui wallet IIRC is 26. Be aware however that using higher, rarer ring sizes causes your transaction to stick out.
Due to the nature of how they are selected, there are wide ranges for the anon sets of these coins, except for monero. But especially so for that of Dash, which may on occasion cross into the grey zone between numbers 1 and 2 due to uncertainty around the number of wallets participating, and the fact that an attacker will never know how many rounds a tx is going through.
And because Dash doesn't rely on encryption for its privacy, if you don't catch/trace the transaction when its happening, i.e. by buying up 70% or more of the masternodes, you can never deanon it. If you use encryption, especially for the entire blockchain, you paint a large target on your blockchain. If your encryption is ever broken, then all past transactions will be deanoned at once, so not good. This is a benefit of steganography over some encryption based privacy schemes. Edit:
Don't worry, my comments and posts are always heavily downvoted, that's how you know they're good stuff!
submitted by thethrowaccount21 to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Ranking the Privacy coins by anon-set - ZeroCoin protocol takes the cake!

EDIT Be aware, the moderators of cryptocurrency have SHADOW DELETED without cause the original thread. This is most likely at the request of the XMR community
https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/9gl5xp/cutting_to_the_chase_or_how_to_properly_evaluate/
This causes the post to appear to me, but to everyone else its been deleted. Now, why would they undertake such an underhanded tactic?
End EDIT
There's a lot of talk about anonymity and privacy as it relates to blockchains. And legacy coins like BTC and BCH that do not have privacy are more effected than those with it. Recently a report surfaced mentioning that cryptos are basically bad news for criminals: https://dailyhodl.com/2018/09/16/bitcoin-is-actually-a-money-laundering-tracking-device-that-catches-criminals-report/
TL;DR is at the bottom
Why? Because they're easy to track. Once they've got a single piece of identifying info that's linked to an address (say that coinbase transfer to an exchange) then all transactions are linkable to that id. But, privacy coins are different because they obscure this history (or in some cases 'delete' it all together). However, it can be a little difficult to decide which privacy coin offers the best privacy, along with the best combination of fees, security and usability.
So with no further ado, here is your simple guide to evaluating privacy coins! Like daily tx throughput is a key metric of btc/blockchain adoption and usage, privacy coins have their own 'key metric' to determine their ability to hide your tx history: the size of their anonymity set. This is basically the number of other people with which your transaction is plausibly 'mixed' so at to sever the link between your address and that coin. The greater this number is, the more difficult it is to associate a coin with your address, thus making it more private.
To make this easier to understand, it helps to know the following: All privacy coins do the same thing, just in vastly different ways. What is that thing? Obscuring/removing your linkage to a coin by mixing it with a similar coin denomination from another wallet. Monero is a slight exception to this, since transaction amounts are hidden in the blockchain as well, so there's no need for denominations. Also, your coin is mixed with fake coins that aren't real, instead of coins from other wallets, but no one can tell that from the blockchain so it works.

PIVX

In PIVX, for example, ~10-20% of all pivx held in wallets is 'gathered' by the accumulator (note it never leaves your control) in a central pool of zpiv using standard denominations like 10 zpiv, 1zpiv, .1zpiv etc. This is a configurable setting in the wallet so some may wish to turn it on/off at their discretion, but recent research has shown that 24% of all PIVX held in wallets is private/zpiv, see u/turtleflax's comment below.
After all of that, by using a zero-knowledge proof which cryptographically proves you owned whatever zpiv was minted from your wallet without any linking information to you, zpiv is 'sent' to your wallet and shows up with no transaction history. So the anonymity set is 10%, ~24% nowadays, of all PIVX held in wallets, which is obviously huge.

ZCoin

ZCoin and PIVX uses the same strategy as both implement the ZeroCoin protocol, which itself is just a specification, PIVX and ZCoin are implementations of that spec. Same idea with the denominations. PIVX's implementation is much more advanced however. ZCoin doesn't have an accumulator or anything and its privacy is optional.
However, its not possible to break a Zerocoin/ZCoin/PIVX transaction because there is nothing to break. It would be like trying to guess someone's password just by them logging in and proving they know their password and it works. That doesn't give you any information that would help. Furthermore, the total anonymity set is around 6.5% of the total supply which puts it comfortably in the same region as PIVX.

ZCash

ZCash is an implementation of the ZeroCash protocol which is an improvement on the ZeroCoin protocol. The cool thing about ZCash is that it also hides the amount of the transaction. ZCash's privacy is optional and the blockchain is split between t-addresses and z-addresses. t-addrs are transparent and contain visible balances just like Bitcoin, which ZCash is a software fork of. z-addrs are shielded. ZCash appears to have two kinds of shielded transactions (shielded and fully shielded).
I'm not sure of the difference between them, but according to this handy block explorer: https://explorer.zcha.in/statistics/usage, shielded txs are far more prevalent than fully shielded ones. The difference between them may be that fully shielded txs are transactions between two z-addrs while a tx that is 'just shielded' may be one between a z-addr and a t-addr and possibly a t-addr and a z-addr, but again, I'm not sure.
The developers claim that the anonymity set is very large in comparison to coins like Dash, and since it is based on the ZeroCoin protocol like PIVX and ZCoin, it is reasonable to assume its anon set is similarly large and based on a proportion of the supply, though where among the three it stands is of course up for debate/verification. Perhaps as large as the shielded value colume for any time period, also note that is a lower bound, so for the past month: 394989 ZEC would be the total shielded ZEC, so this seems a reasonable lower-bound on the Anon-set. Its hard to Tell between this and PIVX which is larger.

Dash

In Dash, it depends on how many rounds you mix. Each coin is once again broken down into standard denominations like 10, 1, .1 .01 Dash. Each round involves a minimum of three different wallets. So take the number of participants and raise it to the rounds you mix-th power, and that is your minimum anonymity set. So mixing four rounds gives you a minimum anonymity set of (3 participants)4 rounds = 81. Eight rounds gives you a min set of 38 = 6,561.
Could be more if more than three wallets were involved in any single mix, which is possible. However, it could be less if the same participants are used per round, which is unlikely. This is still a HUGE anonymity set; however, its probably at least an order of magnitude less than PIVX and ZCoin unless you were to get 4-5 wallets mixing per round. Still, even 81 could be rightly considered overkill, especially since considering the nature of privateSend and the random separation between 'minting' and spending makes Dash immune to timing analysis attacks. The determination of which coin to use will come down to your anonymity needs. How private do you need to be?

Monero

In Monero, the anonymity set is the number of mixins used at the time of your transaction. Which is currently 7. Monero originally had optional privacy where the min mixin was 0 and those transactions were transparent like btc's. However, having these 0 mixin transactions together with the higher mixin transactions allowed for higher ones to be deanoned, that and 3 forms of timing analysis attacks forced the min mixin to be raised to 3, then 5 and now 7.

TL;DR

So in short, if you want to rank privacy coins by their anon-set size (which is the only thing that matters) the list is as follows:

1. ZeroCoin and ZeroCash implementations: PIVX, ZCoin, ZCash

2. Dash

3. Monero

Note: Each tier represents a range of at least >1 order of magnitude greater anonymity set. So ZCoin, ZCash and PIVX are all grouped together, even though PIVX may have an anon-set 10-50x greater than ZCash or ZCoin (just an example, not a real figure), all three of them are still going to have anon sets 1-4 orders of magnitude greater than Dash, and like 6-7 greater than Monero. Monero's default min mixin is 7 and the max definable in the gui wallet IIRC is 26. Be aware however that using higher, rarer ring sizes causes your transaction to stick out.
Due to the nature of how they are selected, there are wide ranges for the anon sets of these coins, except for monero. But especially so for that of Dash, which may on occasion cross into the grey zone between numbers 1 and 2 due to uncertainty around the number of wallets participating, and the fact that an attacker will never know how many rounds a tx is going through.
And because Dash doesn't rely on encryption for its privacy, if you don't catch/trace the transaction when its happening, i.e. by buying up 70% or more of the masternodes, you can never deanon it. If you use encryption, especially for the entire blockchain, you paint a large target on your blockchain. If your encryption is ever broken, then all past transactions will be deanoned at once, so not good. This is a benefit of steganography over some encryption based privacy schemes. Edit:
Don't worry, my comments and posts are always heavily downvoted, that's how you know they're good stuff!
submitted by thethrowaccount21 to ZeroCoin [link] [comments]

How To Buy A Fake ID - YouTube BITCOIN FALLING!! FAKE OUT?! Controversial BCH FORK!! MASSIVE Crypto Adoption 2020 HOW TO BUY BITCOIN 2019 - Easy Ways to Invest In ... Bitcoin Core's Feature Proved to be Easy to Exploit, Coinbase CEO Patents Emailing Bitcoin and More Buy bitcoin with credit card no ID verification (4 ways ...

2. 3 Easy Methods to Buy Bitcoin Anonymously. Note: In June 2019, the popular website LocalBitcoins removed its option for in person cash trades. Method 1 – Paxful. If you’re looking to buy Bitcoins anonymously then the easiest way would be to buy Bitcoins in cash and in person. Use Paxful to find someone who is willing to sell Bitcoins for cash next to your physical location. Bitcoin transactions are recorded on a public ledger. Anyone who traces a public address can know the origin and/or destination. There is no protocol-level procedure to anonymize these bitcoins, which is why a Bitcoin mixer is required to hide identity.. Bitcoin mixing is a process that tries to break the linkability or traceability. Einer der zentralen Grundsätze von Krypto ist die Anonymität. Das Letzte, was Sie also wollen, ist, dass Ihr Bitcoin Wallet das ist, was Ihre Privatsphäre aufgibt. Glücklicherweise haben Sie ein paar wirklich anonyme Bitcoin Wallets zur Auswahl. Lesen Sie weiter und entdecken Sie unsere fünf Top-Auswahlen. Unstoppable Unstoppable ist eine dezentralisierte Krypto Wallet App, die […] LocalBitcoins lets you buy Bitcoin without verifying ID, but only up to 1,000 euros or equivalent per year. It does not let you sell Bitcoin without verifying identity. Paxful does not require ID verification for account creation, but requires verification for accounts that reach the equivalent of US$1,500 in trade volume or wallet activity. Kucoin only offer crypto-to-crypto trading, but ... However, privacy doesn’t come free. Bitcoin ATMs generally charge between 7 – 10% for buying/selling bitcoins in terms of fee worth paying for some of us. You May Also Read: 5 Sites To Buy Bitcoin With Debit Card. 3 Ways to Buy Bitcoin Without ID 1. Bitcoin ATM. The trend of Bitcoin ATMs isn’t very prevalent. But, it’s yet one of the ...

[index] [13976] [46796] [43499] [30550] [7218] [8940] [44844] [47559] [15866] [11345]

How To Buy A Fake ID - YouTube

not my job subrreddit review top all time r- Floor Gang Merch! https://represent.com/store/pewdiepie (Thank you) Subscribe to become a Member here: https://w... Relevant links: Helix : http://grams7enufi7jmdl.onion/helix Let's explore together. Join me by watching all of the videos in the playlist - Dive Into the Dee... HOW TO BUY BITCOIN 2019 - EASY Ways to Invest In Cryptocurrency For Beginners! Get $10 of free Bitcoin when you buy or sell at least $100 of cryptocurrency o... Jared from prank show Friday Night Cranks shows you how easily it is to buy a fake ID over the phone. This scares many young kids because fake ID makers can ... Stream/Download 'Fake ID' here: https://smarturl.it/FakeID Connect with Riton: https://www.facebook.com/ritontime https://twitter.com/henryriton https://www....

#